The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027

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The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027 covers Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and Bacterial cellulose particles (BC) and provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future markets for these remarkable materials.

Nanocellulose will greatly impact environmentally friendly and biodegradable solutions in market such as packaging, paper & board, composites, coatings & films, medical & healthcare, textiles, oil & gas, filtration, rheology modifiers, aerogels, 3D printing and printed & flexible electronics.

Most major paper and pulp producers are actively involved in commercialization of Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)s, seeking commercial application in high volume industries such as paper & board and packaging. However, several are also seeking to move into applications in areas such as electronics and pivoting towards production of Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) for more advanced applications. The nanocellulose market is growing fast in Japan, with products already on the market in textiles and consumer goods.

Daio Paper Corp., has recently launched a paper toilet cleaner made from cellluose nanofibers (CNF) and Nippon Paper Industries has established Japan’s largest cellulose nanofiber (CNF) production line at its plant in the city of Ishinomaki with a planned annual production of 500 tons.

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Image: Daio Paper Corp.’s new paper toilet cleaner product incorporating cellulose nanofibers.

Report contents include: 

  • Global nanocellulose production capacities, by producer and type of nanocellulose.
  • Most likely commercial applications.
  • Current nanocellulose products.
  • Stage of commercialization for nanocellulose applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for nanocellulose including revenues, growth rates, pricing, and market challenges.
  • Revenues and tonnage demand for end user markets for nanocellulose.
  • Regional analysis of the market for nanocellulose.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes, target markets and commmercial activities.

Companies featured in this report include American Process, Inc., Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Borregaard Chemcell, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., Daicel Corporation, Daio Paper Corporation, Imerys, Innventia AB, Kruger Bioproducts, Inc, Stora Enso Ltd. and many more.

Published: August 2017 | No. of pages: 401

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 31

  • 1.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 1.1.1     Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • 1.2    Production worldwide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
    • 1.2.1     Production plants and production status………………………………………………………………… 40
  • 1.3    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
    • 1.3.1     Demand for sustainable materials………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.3.2     Enhanced products for paper and board industries……………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.3.3     Unique properties lead to new products…………………………………………………………………. 44
    • 1.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration…………………………………. 44
  • 1.4    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.4.1     Characterization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
    • 1.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
    • 1.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………….. 45
    • 1.4.5     Scalability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 1.4.6     Lack of current products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 1.4.7     Cost-competitiveness with traditional technology…………………………………………………… 46
  • 1.5    Global Nanocellulose market size………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
    • 1.5.1     The market for nanocellulose in 2017…………………………………………………………………….. 47
    • 1.5.2     Nanocellulose global revenues and demand in tons, 2015–2027………………………….. 51
    • 1.5.3     Nanocellulose market by region…………………………………………………………………………….. 53

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 55

  • 2.1    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 2.1.1     Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
    • 2.1.2     Economic impact by 2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 2.1.3     Current market size for equivalent applications……………………………………………………… 57
    • 2.1.4     Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 2.1.5     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 2.1.6     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 2.1.7     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 2.1.8     Regulatory/Government policy push………………………………………………………………………. 58
    • 2.1.9     Market pull……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • 2.2    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 59

3    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………… 62

  • 3.1    Properties of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
  • 3.2    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • 3.3    What is nanocellulose?…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • 3.4    Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
    • 3.4.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 69
      • 3.4.1.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
      • 3.4.1.2       Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 3.4.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 72
      • 3.4.2.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.4.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
      • 3.4.3.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
  • 3.5    Synthesis of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 75
    • 3.5.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)……………………………………………………………………………. 75
    • 3.5.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 76
    • 3.5.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 76
    • 3.5.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………… 77
    • 3.5.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • 3.6    Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • 3.7    Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 3.8    Manufacture of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………… 80
  • 3.9    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
    • 3.9.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 84
    • 3.9.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………… 84

4    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE…………………………….. 85

  • 4.1    Routes to commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • 4.2    Market structure from materials production to end product…………………………………………….. 85
  • 4.3    Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales……………. 88
  • 4.4    Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………. 90

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR NANOCELLULOSE…………………………….. 92

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 94

  • 6.1    Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 6.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………. 94
    • 6.1.2     American National Standards………………………………………………………………………………… 94
    • 6.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • 6.2    Toxicity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • 6.3    Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 98

8    NANOCELLULOSE APPLICATIONS……………………………………….. 99

  • 8.1    High volume, medium volume and low volume nanocellulose applications……………………. 99

9    NANOCELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL).. 101

10 NANOCELLULOSE END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 103

  • 10.1      Production of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………… 103
    • 10.1.1        Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………… 103
    • 10.1.2        Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………… 103
    • 10.1.3        Cellulose nanocrystal production……………………………………………………………………… 104
    • 10.1.4        Production volumes, by region…………………………………………………………………………. 105
    • 10.1.5        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
    • 10.1.6        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • 10.2      Nanocellulose patents & publications………………………………………………………………………. 111

11 COMPOSITES INCLUDING THERMOPLASTICS AND RUBBER ADDITIVES……………………………………………………………………………… 117

  • 11.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 11.1.1        Growing use of polymer composites………………………………………………………………… 117
    • 11.1.2        Increased need for advanced, protective materials………………………………………….. 118
    • 11.1.3        Improved multi-functional performance over traditional composites-green AND strong        118
    • 11.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
    • 11.1.5        Growth in the wind energy market……………………………………………………………………. 119
    • 11.1.6        Environmental impact of carbon fibers…………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 11.1.7        Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites 120
  • 11.2      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 11.2.1        Applications by cellulose type………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 11.2.2        Applications timeline………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • 11.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 123
    • 11.3.1        Biopackaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
      • 11.3.1.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 127
      • 11.3.1.2     Anti-microbial packaging biofilm market is growing……………………………………… 132
      • 11.3.1.3     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
      • 11.3.1.4     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 135
      • 11.3.1.5     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 11.3.1.6     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 140
    • 11.3.2        Aerospace and aviation……………………………………………………………………………………. 141
      • 11.3.2.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 141
      • 11.3.2.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 143
      • 11.3.2.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 144
      • 11.3.2.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
    • 11.3.3        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
      • 11.3.3.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 149
      • 11.3.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
      • 11.3.3.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 153
      • 11.3.3.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
      • 11.3.3.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 11.3.4        Construction & building……………………………………………………………………………………. 160
      • 11.3.4.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 160
      • 11.3.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161
      • 11.3.4.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 162
      • 11.3.4.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
      • 11.3.4.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 165

12 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………… 170

  • 12.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 12.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 12.1.2        Need to develop innovative new products in the paper and board industry……… 170
  • 12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 12.2.1     Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
    • 12.2.2     Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 172
    • 12.2.3     Anti-microbials……………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • 12.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 12.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………….. 174
  • 12.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 176
  • 12.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 177

13 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 179

  • 13.1      Market drivers for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………. 179
    • 13.1.1     Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………….. 179
    • 13.1.2     Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles……………………………………………. 179
    • 13.1.3     Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………….. 180
    • 13.1.4     Environmental and regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 181
    • 13.1.5     Need for biodegradable sanitary products…………………………………………………… 181
  • 13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
  • 13.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 183
    • 13.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………. 183
  • 13.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • 13.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 186

14 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………….. 187

  • 14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 188
    • 14.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 188
    • 14.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
    • 14.1.5        Growth in advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………………… 189
  • 14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
    • 14.2.1     Drug delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
    • 14.2.2     Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………….. 190
    • 14.2.3     Tissue engineering………………………………………………………………………………………. 191
    • 14.2.4     Wound dressings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 191
    • 14.2.5     Laterial flow immunosay labels……………………………………………………………………. 192
  • 14.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • 14.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 196

15 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………….. 198

  • 15.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
    • 15.1.1        Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………… 198
    • 15.1.2        Chemical to bio-based……………………………………………………………………………………… 198
    • 15.1.3        Increased demand for abrasion and scratch resistant coatings……………………….. 199
    • 15.1.4        Increased demand for UV-resistant coatings…………………………………………………… 199
    • 15.1.5        Growth in superhydrophobic coatings market………………………………………………….. 200
  • 15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
    • 15.2.1        Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 15.2.2        Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
    • 15.2.3        Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………. 202
    • 15.2.4        Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • 15.3      Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
    • 15.3.1        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 15.3.1.1     High viscosity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 15.3.1.2     Moisture sorption…………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 15.3.1.3     Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
      • 15.3.1.4     Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
      • 15.3.1.5     Transparency………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
      • 15.3.1.6     Production, scalability and cost……………………………………………………………………. 209
  • 15.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 210

16 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 211

  • 16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
    • 16.1.1        Energy efficiency……………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
    • 16.1.2        Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials……………………………… 211
  • 16.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • 16.3      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
    • 16.3.1        Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
    • 16.3.2        Medical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213
    • 16.3.3        Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214
  • 16.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 214

17 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 215

  • 17.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………. 215
    • 17.1.1        Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency…………………… 215
    • 17.1.2        Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………………. 216
    • 17.1.3        Increased exploration in extreme environments………………………………………………. 217
    • 17.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • 17.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 218
    • 17.2.1        Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………. 219
    • 17.2.2        Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • 17.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 220
    • 17.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas………………………………………… 221
  • 17.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • 17.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 224

18 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 225

  • 18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
    • 18.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 225
    • 18.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 226
    • 18.1.3        Need for improved and low cost membrane technology………………………………….. 227
    • 18.1.4        Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies………………………………….. 228
    • 18.1.5        Cost and efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
    • 18.1.6        Growth in the air filter market…………………………………………………………………………… 228
    • 18.1.7        Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………………………………………….. 229
    • 18.1.8        Recyclability of polymer membranes……………………………………………………………….. 229
  • 18.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
    • 18.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
    • 18.2.2        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
    • 18.2.3        Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • 18.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 233
    • 18.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration…………………………………………….. 234
  • 18.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
  • 18.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 237

19 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 239

  • 19.1      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
    • 19.1.1        Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 240
    • 19.1.2        Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………. 240
    • 19.1.3        Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 240
  • 19.2      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 241

20 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 242

  • 20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 242
    • 20.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242
    • 20.1.2        Flexible, wearable and paper electronics markets growing……………………………… 242
    • 20.1.3        Need for improved barrier function…………………………………………………………………… 244
  • 20.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
    • 20.2.1        Wearable electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
      • 20.2.1.1     Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
      • 20.2.1.2     Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
    • 20.2.2        Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
  • 20.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 250
    • 20.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in printed and flexible electronics…………. 253
  • 20.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
    • 20.4.1.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
    • 20.4.1.2     Integration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
    • 20.4.1.3     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • 20.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 256

21 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 257

  • 21.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257
    • 21.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 257
    • 21.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 257
  • 21.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 257
    • 21.2.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing………………………………………… 258
  • 21.3      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259
  • 21.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 260

22 NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES…………………………….. 261

  • 22.1      Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)………………………… 261
  • 22.2      Target markets for producers…………………………………………………………………………………… 262

22.3      NANOFIBRILLAR CELLULOSE (NFC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………….. 264- 345 (Including products, production capacity, production process, commercial applications and target markets) 

22.4      CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCERS……………………………………………… 346-358 (Including products, production capacity, production process, commercial applications and target markets) 

22.5      BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) PRODUCERS……………………………………………………….. 359-361

22.6      OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…………………………………… 362-377 (30 company profiles)

23 MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES…………………… 379-390 (23 profiles)

24 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 392

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 34
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 37
  • Table 4: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 40
  • Table 5: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
  • Table 6: Nanocellulose products in Japan………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Table 7: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into key markets…. 51
  • Table 8: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 63
  • Table 9: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • Table 10: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)……………………………………………………………….. 69
  • Table 11: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Table 12: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………….. 74
  • Table 13: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 75
  • Table 14: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Table 15: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76
  • Table 16: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76
  • Table 17: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
  • Table 18: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Table 19: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 79
  • Table 20: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………… 81
  • Table 21: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale…………………………………………………………….. 82
  • Table 22: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………… 84
  • Table 23: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 24: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Table 25: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………… 90
  • Table 26: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • Table 27: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………… 95
  • Table 28: Potential high volume impact of nanocellulose and likelihood of market impact…………. 99
  • Table 29: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……. 103
  • Table 30: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned…… 105
  • Table 31: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 106
  • Table 32: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers…………………………………….. 109
  • Table 33: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013…………………………………….. 111
  • Table 34: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 35: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013………. 112
  • Table 36: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………… 113
  • Table 37: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014……………………………………………………………. 114
  • Table 38: Main patent assignees for NCC, as of May 2015……………………………………………………… 115
  • Table 39: Main patent assignees for NFC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 115
  • Table 40: Main patent assignees for BCC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 115
  • Table 41: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials……………………….. 120
  • Table 42: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…. 122
  • Table 43: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………. 122
  • Table 44: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………. 122
  • Table 45: Market assessment for nanocellulose in composites………………………………………………… 123
  • Table 46: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in composites……………………………… 124
  • Table 47: Limitations of nanocellulose in the development of nanocomposites………………………… 124
  • Table 48: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125
  • Table 49: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………… 126
  • Table 50: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………….. 132
  • Table 51: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………… 134
  • Table 52: Market assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………………………….. 135
  • Table 53: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • Table 54: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………… 137
  • Table 55:Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………… 139
  • Table 56: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market…………………… 140
  • Table 57: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
  • Table 58: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…. 143
  • Table 59: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • Table 60: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation………………………………………….. 146
  • Table 61: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)… 147
  • Table 62: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the aerospace market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
  • Table 63: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 150
  • Table 64: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Table 65: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector………………………………… 155
  • Table 66: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry…………… 155
  • Table 67: Market size for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………….. 156
  • Table 68: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………… 157
  • Table 69: Applications and commercilization challenges in the automotive market………………….. 158
  • Table 70: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the automotive market……………………….. 158
  • Table 71: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • Table 72: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 162
  • Table 73: Market size for nanocellulose in construction and civil engineering………………………….. 162
  • Table 74: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.. 163
  • Table 75: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 164
  • Table 76: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market…………………………………………….. 165
  • Table 77: Nanocellulose in polymer composites-Companies and products………………………………. 165
  • Table 78: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………….. 170
  • Table 79: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………… 173
  • Table 80: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………… 174
  • Table 81: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)………….. 176
  • Table 82: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the paper and board market………………. 176
  • Table 83: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177
  • Table 84: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
  • Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles…………………………………….. 183
  • Table 86: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles……… 184
  • Table 87: Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………………………………….. 185
  • Table 88: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the textiles and apparel market…………. 186
  • Table 89: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
  • Table 90: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…………….. 189
  • Table 91: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………… 192
  • Table 92: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 193
  • Table 93: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………. 194
  • Table 94: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 195
  • Table 95: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………. 196
  • Table 96: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 201
  • Table 97: Market assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films……………………………………… 204
  • Table 98: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
  • Table 99: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films…………………… 206
  • Table 100: Demand for nanocellulose in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)……… 207
  • Table 101: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market………….. 209
  • Table 102: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………….. 210
  • Table 103: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………….. 212
  • Table 104: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market……………………………………. 213
  • Table 105: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels……………………………………………………….. 214
  • Table 106: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………. 218
  • Table 107: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • Table 108: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas………………………………………………. 221
  • Table 109: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
  • Table 110: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons). 223
  • Table 111: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market…… 223
  • Table 112: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration………………………………….. 224
  • Table 113: Types of filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225
  • Table 114: CNF membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
  • Table 115: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………… 229
  • Table 116: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • Table 117: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration……………………………………………………. 234
  • Table 118: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………… 235
  • Table 119: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 236
  • Table 120: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the filtration market………………………….. 237
  • Table 121: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Table 122: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………….. 239
  • Table 123: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers………………………………………… 241
  • Table 124: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………. 243
  • Table 125: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………………. 244
  • Table 126: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………. 248
  • Table 127: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$……………………………………….. 251
  • Table 128: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 253
  • Table 129: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector.. 253
  • Table 130: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in flexible electronics………………… 254
  • Table 131: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
  • Table 132: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 256
  • Table 133: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Table 134: Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing……………………………………………….. 258
  • Table 135: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………….. 259
  • Table 136: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 260
  • Table 137: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,…………………………………… 260
  • Table 138: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 261
  • Table 139: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 262

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet…………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
  • Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 47
  • Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 48
  • Figure 6: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Figure 7: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
  • Figure 8: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 50
  • Figure 9: Nanocellulose market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………………… 52
  • Figure 10: Nanocellulose market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 11: Nanocellulose market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 12: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 65
  • Figure 13: Scale of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • Figure 14: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Figure 15: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses…………………………………………….. 68
  • Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Figure 17: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Figure 18: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer…………………. 85
  • Figure 19: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales, 2016. 89
  • Figure 20: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose…………………………………………….. 102
  • Figure 21: Production volumes of nanocellulose 2017, by region…………………………………………….. 105
  • Figure 22:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013………………………………………………… 113
  • Figure 23: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………. 126
  • Figure 24: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………….. 131
  • Figure 25: Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………. 139
  • Figure 26: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 147
  • Figure 27: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 152
  • Figure 28: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Figure 29: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………….. 157
  • Figure 30: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 164
  • Figure 31: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 174
  • Figure 32: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………. 175
  • Figure 33: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons). 195
  • Figure 34: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 203
  • Figure 35: Demand for nanocellulose in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)…….. 207
  • Figure 36: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)……………………… 212
  • Figure 37: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 219
  • Figure 38: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 222
  • Figure 39: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Figure 40: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 236
  • Figure 41: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 245
  • Figure 42:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 43: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 247
  • Figure 44: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 248
  • Figure 45: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
  • Figure 46: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 47: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 250
  • Figure 48: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 251
  • Figure 49: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • Figure 50: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • Figure 51: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 268
  • Figure 52: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 269
  • Figure 53: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 54: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291
  • Figure 55: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 304
  • Figure 56: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 304
  • Figure 57: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 305
  • Figure 58: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
  • Figure 59: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 309
  • Figure 60: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 336
  • Figure 61: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 341
  • Figure 62: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:……………………………. 350
  • Figure 63: NCCTM Process……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 351
  • Figure 64: Plantrose process……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 357
The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027
The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027
The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2017-2027
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