The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers

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Capture NFc

Revised September 2017 | 382 pages 

The global nanocellulose market comprises:

  • Micro/nanofibrillar cellulose, cellulose nanofibers (MFC/NFC/CNF).
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC/CNC) and
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC)

Cellulose nanofibers represent the vast majority of this market (>90%). Most major paper manufacturers, faced with reduced market demand for paper are seeking to exploit the remarkable properties of cellulose nanofibers. The market is growing fast in Japan with large paper manufacturers such as Nippon Paper and Oji Holdings establishing multi-ton cellulose nanofiber production facilities. Asahi Kasei, Japan’s leading chemicals manufacturer recently announced plans for cellulose nanofiber production, with trial production starting next year. Facilities have also been established in Europe (mainly Scandanavia), Canada and the United States. Products are available for commercial trials and will find wider application in packaging and composites over the next few years.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for cellulose nanofiber applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for cellulose nanofibers including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes and commmercial activities.

Companies profiled in the report American Process, Inc., Imerys, Innventia AB, Asahi Kasei, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Daicel, Daiichi Kogyo, Daio Paper, Nippon Paper, Oji Holdings, Sugino Machine, Seiko PMC, StoraEnso and Borregaard.

The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
Print edition.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download and print edition.

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Future Markets, Inc,
Phone: +44 (0) 207 112 7500
Mobile: +44 (0) 7886128735
Email: info@futuremarketsinc.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 30

  • 1.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
    • 1.1.1     Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………….. 36
  • 1.2    Production worldwide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 1.2.1     Production plants and production status………………………………………………………………… 40
  • 1.3    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
    • 1.3.1     Demand for sustainable materials………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 1.3.2     Enhanced products for paper and board industries……………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.3.3     Unique properties lead to new products…………………………………………………………………. 43
    • 1.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration…………………………………. 43
  • 1.4    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
  • 1.4.1     Characterization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
  • 1.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  • 1.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • 1.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • 1.4.5     Scalability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
  • 1.4.6     Lack of current products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
  • 1.4.7     Cost-competitiveness with traditional technology…………………………………………………… 45
  • 1.5    Global cellulose nanofibers market size…………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 1.5.1     The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2017…………………………………………………………… 46
    • 1.5.2     Nanocellulose global revenues and demand in tons, 2015–2027………………………….. 50
    • 1.5.3     Cellulose nanofiber market by region…………………………………………………………………….. 52

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 55

  • 2.1    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 2.1.1     Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
    • 2.1.2     Economic impact by 2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 2.1.3     Current market size for equivalent applications……………………………………………………… 57
    • 2.1.4     Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 2.1.5     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 2.1.6     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 2.1.7     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 2.1.8     Regulatory/Government policy push………………………………………………………………………. 58
    • 2.1.9     Market pull……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
  • 2.2    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 58

3    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………… 61

  • 3.1    What is nanocellulose?…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61
  • 3.2    Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    • 3.2.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 65
      • 3.2.1.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
      • 3.2.1.2       Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………….. 67
    • 3.2.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 68
      • 3.2.2.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • 3.2.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 3.2.3.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • 3.3    Synthesis of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 71
    • 3.3.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)……………………………………………………………………………. 71
    • 3.3.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.3.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.3.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 3.3.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 3.4    Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
  • 3.5    Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • 3.6    Manufacture of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • 3.7    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
    • 3.7.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 80
    • 3.7.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………… 80

4    CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS MARKET STRUCTURE………………… 81

  • 4.1    Routes to commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
  • 4.2    Market structure from materials production to end product…………………………………………….. 81
  • 4.3    Volume of industry demand for CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS BY CELULOSE NANOFIBER producer sales………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
  • 4.4    Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………. 86

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS………………… 88

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 90

  • 6.1    Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 6.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………. 90
    • 6.1.2     American National Standards………………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 6.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • 6.2    Toxicity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • 6.3    Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 95

8    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER APPLICATIONS…………………………….. 96

  • 8.1    High volume, medium volume and low volume cellulose nanofiber applications………. 96

9    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………………………………………………………………… 98

10 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………. 100

  • 10.1      Production of cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………. 100
    • 10.1.1        Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………… 100
    • 10.1.2        Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………… 100
    • 10.1.3        Production volumes, by region…………………………………………………………………………. 102
    • 10.1.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 102
    • 10.1.5        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
  • 10.2      Cellulose nanofibers patents & publications…………………………………………………………….. 107

11 COMPOSITES INCLUDING THERMOPLASTICS AND RUBBER ADDITIVES……………………………………………………………………………… 114

  • 11.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 114
    • 11.1.1        Growing use of polymer composites………………………………………………………………… 114
    • 11.1.2        Increased need for advanced, protective materials………………………………………….. 115
    • 11.1.3        Improved multi-functional performance over traditional composites-green AND strong        115
    • 11.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 11.1.5        Growth in the wind energy market……………………………………………………………………. 116
    • 11.1.6        Environmental impact of carbon fibers…………………………………………………………….. 116
    • 11.1.7        Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites 117
  • 11.2      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
    • 11.2.1        Applications by cellulose type………………………………………………………………………….. 118
    • 11.2.2        Applications timeline………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • 11.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 120
    • 11.3.1        Biopackaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
      • 11.3.1.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 124
      • 11.3.1.2     Anti-microbial packaging biofilm market is growing……………………………………… 129
      • 11.3.1.3     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
      • 11.3.1.4     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 132
      • 11.3.1.5     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
      • 11.3.1.6     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 138
    • 11.3.2        Aerospace and aviation……………………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 11.3.2.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 138
      • 11.3.2.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
      • 11.3.2.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 142
      • 11.3.2.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
    • 11.3.3        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 11.3.3.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 146
      • 11.3.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
      • 11.3.3.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 151
      • 11.3.3.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
      • 11.3.3.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 11.3.4        Construction & building……………………………………………………………………………………. 157
      • 11.3.4.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 157
      • 11.3.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
      • 11.3.4.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 159
      • 11.3.4.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 162
      • 11.3.4.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 163

12 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………… 167

  • 12.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 167
    • 12.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
    • 12.1.2        Need to develop innovative new products in the paper and board industry……… 167
  • 12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167
    • 12.2.1        Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
    • 12.2.2        Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
    • 12.2.3        Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 169
  • 12.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 170
    • 12.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………….. 171
  • 12.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
  • 12.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 174

13 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 176

  • 13.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
    • 13.1.1        Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………………. 176
    • 13.1.2        Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles………………………………………………… 176
    • 13.1.3        Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………………. 177
    • 13.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 13.1.5        Need for biodegradable sanitary products……………………………………………………….. 178
  • 13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • 13.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 181
    • 13.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles………………….. 181
  • 13.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 182
  • 13.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 183

14 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………….. 184

  • 14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 185
    • 14.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 185
    • 14.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 185
    • 14.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 185
    • 14.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 14.1.5        Growth in advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………………… 186
  • 14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 14.2.1        Drug delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187
    • 14.2.2        Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187
    • 14.2.3        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.2.4        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.2.5        Laterial flow immunosay labels………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • 14.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 189
  • 14.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 193

15 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………….. 195

  • 15.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
    • 15.1.1        Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………… 195
    • 15.1.2        Chemical to bio-based……………………………………………………………………………………… 195
    • 15.1.3        Increased demand for abrasion and scratch resistant coatings……………………….. 196
    • 15.1.4        Increased demand for UV-resistant coatings…………………………………………………… 196
    • 15.1.5        Growth in superhydrophobic coatings market………………………………………………….. 197
  • 15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
    • 15.2.1        Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………………. 198
    • 15.2.2        Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
    • 15.2.3        Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………. 199
    • 15.2.4        Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
  • 15.3      Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
    • 15.3.1        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
      • 15.3.1.1     High viscosity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
      • 15.3.1.2     Moisture sorption…………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
      • 15.3.1.3     Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205
      • 15.3.1.4     Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206
      • 15.3.1.5     Transparency………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206
      • 15.3.1.6     Production, scalability and cost……………………………………………………………………. 206
  • 15.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 207

16 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 208

  • 16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
    • 16.1.1        Energy efficiency……………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
    • 16.1.2        Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials……………………………… 208
  • 16.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 208
  • 16.3      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
    • 16.3.1        Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 210
    • 16.3.2        Medical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
    • 16.3.3        Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
  • 16.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 211

17 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 212

  • 17.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………… 212
    • 17.1.1        Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency…………………… 212
    • 17.1.2        Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………………. 213
    • 17.1.3        Increased exploration in extreme environments………………………………………………. 214
    • 17.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 214
  • 17.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
    • 17.2.1        Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………. 216
    • 17.2.2        Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 217
  • 17.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 217
    • 17.3.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas………………………………. 218
  • 17.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • 17.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 221

18 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 222

  • 18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
    • 18.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 222
    • 18.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 223
    • 18.1.3        Need for improved and low cost membrane technology………………………………….. 224
    • 18.1.4        Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies………………………………….. 225
    • 18.1.5        Cost and efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
    • 18.1.6        Growth in the air filter market…………………………………………………………………………… 225
    • 18.1.7        Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………………………………………….. 226
    • 18.1.8        Recyclability of polymer membranes……………………………………………………………….. 226
  • 18.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
    • 18.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
    • 18.2.2        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
    • 18.2.3        Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
  • 18.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 230
    • 18.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration…………………………………………….. 231
  • 18.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • 18.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 234

19 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 236

  • 19.1      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
    • 19.1.1        Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
    • 19.1.2        Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
    • 19.1.3        Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
  • 19.2      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 238

20 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 239

  • 20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
    • 20.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 239
    • 20.1.2        Flexible, wearable and paper electronics markets growing……………………………… 239
    • 20.1.3        Need for improved barrier function…………………………………………………………………… 241
  • 20.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 241
    • 20.2.1        Wearable electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 242
      • 20.2.1.1     Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245
      • 20.2.1.2     Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………… 247
      • 20.2.2        Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 247
  • 20.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 247
    • 20.3.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in printed and flexible electronics.. 250
  • 20.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
    • 20.4.1.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
    • 20.4.1.2     Integration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
    • 20.4.1.3     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 253
  • 20.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 253

21 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 254

  • 21.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 254
    • 21.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 254
    • 21.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 254
  • 21.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 255
    • 21.2.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing………………………………. 256
  • 21.3      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257
  • 21.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

22 CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS COMPANY PROFILES…………………………….. 258-342 (24 company profiles including production capactities, products, production processes, commercial applications, collaborations, target markets and contact details). 

 

22.4      OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…………………………………… 343-359 (30 company profiles)

23 MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES…………………… 360-371 (23 profiles)

24 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 373

 

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 33
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 36
  • Table 4: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 40
  • Table 5: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • Table 6: Cellulose nanofiber products in Japan………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Table 7: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of cellulose nanofibers into key markets………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
  • Table 9: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
  • Table 10: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)……………………………………………………………….. 65
  • Table 11: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Table 12: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Table 13: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 14: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Table 15: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
  • Table 16: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
  • Table 17: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Table 18: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Table 19: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 75
  • Table 20: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………… 77
  • Table 21: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale…………………………………………………………….. 78
  • Table 22: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………… 80
  • Table 23: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 80
  • Table 24: Cellulose nanofiber market structure…………………………………………………………………………… 81
  • Table 25: Current and potential end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company……. 86
  • Table 26: SWOT analysis of cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • Table 27: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………… 91
  • Table 28: Potential high volume impact of cellulose nanofiber and likelihood of market impact…. 96
  • Table 29: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……. 100
  • Table 30: Markets and applications for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………….. 102
  • Table 31: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers…………………………….. 105
  • Table 32: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013…………………………………….. 108
  • Table 33: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 34: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013………. 109
  • Table 35: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………… 110
  • Table 36: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014……………………………………………………………. 111
  • Table 37: Main patent assignees for NCC, as of May 2015……………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 38: Main patent assignees for NFC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 112
  • Table 39: Main patent assignees for BCC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 112
  • Table 40: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials……………………….. 117
  • Table 41: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…. 119
  • Table 42: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………. 119
  • Table 43: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………. 119
  • Table 44: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in composites………………………………………. 120
  • Table 45: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in composites……………………. 121
  • Table 46: Limitations of cellulose nanofibers in the development of nanocomposites………………. 121
  • Table 47: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • Table 48: Demand for cellulose nanofibers the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………….. 123
  • Table 49: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………….. 129
  • Table 50: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………… 131
  • Table 51: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging……………………………………. 132
  • Table 52: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
  • Table 53: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging…………………. 135
  • Table 54:Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)………. 136
  • Table 55: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market………….. 137
  • Table 56: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • Table 57: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…. 140
  • Table 58: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
  • Table 59: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation………………………………………….. 143
  • Table 60: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
  • Table 61: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace market……………… 145
  • Table 62: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 148
  • Table 63: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in the automotive sector…………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • Table 64: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive sector………………………. 152
  • Table 65: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry…. 153
  • Table 66: Market size for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry………………………………… 153
  • Table 67: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………. 154
  • Table 68: Applications and commercilization challenges for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 155
  • Table 69: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market……………… 155
  • Table 70: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………… 156
  • Table 71: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 159
  • Table 72: Market size for cellulose nanofibers in construction and civil engineering………………… 159
  • Table 73: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.. 160
  • Table 74: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
  • Table 75: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market………………………………………………………………………….. 162
  • Table 76: Cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites-Companies and products……………………. 163
  • Table 77: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………… 167
  • Table 78: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………… 170
  • Table 79: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in paper and board……………. 171
  • Table 80: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)… 173
  • Table 81: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market…….. 174
  • Table 82: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 174
  • Table 83: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Table 84: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles…………………………… 181
  • Table 85: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of cellulose nanofibers into textiles. 181
  • Table 86: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles……………………………………………… 182
  • Table 87: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles and apparel market.. 183
  • Table 88: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
  • Table 89: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…….. 186
  • Table 90: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………… 189
  • Table 91: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 191
  • Table 92: Cellulose nanofibers opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 192
  • Table 93: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • Table 94: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in medical and healthcare applications…….. 193
  • Table 95: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 198
  • Table 96: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films……………………………. 201
  • Table 97: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • Table 98: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films…………. 203
  • Table 99: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons). 204
  • Table 100: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the coatings and films market… 206
  • Table 101: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………… 207
  • Table 102: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………… 209
  • Table 103: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the aerogels market………………………….. 210
  • Table 104: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in aerogels……………………………………………… 211
  • Table 105: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market……………………………………. 215
  • Table 106: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
  • Table 107: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas……………………………………… 218
  • Table 108: Cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • Table 109: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 220
  • Table 110: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Table 111: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………….. 221
  • Table 112: Types of filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
  • Table 113: CNF membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
  • Table 114: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………… 226
  • Table 115: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 231
  • Table 116: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration………………………………………….. 231
  • Table 117: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration industry……. 232
  • Table 118: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………….. 233
  • Table 119: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market………………… 234
  • Table 120: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
  • Table 121: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………… 236
  • Table 122: Commercial activity in cellulose nanofiber rheology modifiers………………………………… 238
  • Table 123: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………. 240
  • Table 124: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………. 241
  • Table 125: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………. 245
  • Table 126: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$……………………………………….. 248
  • Table 127: Application markets, competing materials, Cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250
  • Table 128: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the flexible and printed electronics sector…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
  • Table 129: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics………. 251
  • Table 130: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 253
  • Table 131: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • Table 132: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • Table 133: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing……………………………………… 256
  • Table 134: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………… 256
  • Table 135: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the 3D printing market……………. 257
  • Table 136: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers 3D printing products,…………………………. 257
  • Table 137: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 258
  • Table 138: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 259

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet…………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 46
  • Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Figure 6: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • Figure 7: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Figure 8: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 49
  • Figure 9: Cellulose nanofibers market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………. 51
  • Figure 10: Cellulose nanofiber market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………. 53
  • Figure 11: Cellulose nanofiber market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………. 54
  • Figure 12: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 13: Scale of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Figure 14: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Figure 15: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses…………………………………………….. 64
  • Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………… 69
  • Figure 17: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 18: Schematic of typical commercialization route for cellulose nanofiber producer…………. 81
  • Figure 19: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by cellulose nanofiber producer sales, 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Figure 20: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………….. 99
  • Figure 21: Production volumes of cellulose nanofibers 2017, by region…………………………………… 102
  • Figure 22:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013………………………………………………… 110
  • Figure 23: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)……….. 123
  • Figure 24: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………….. 128
  • Figure 25: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2017 (tons)…….. 136
  • Figure 26: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
  • Figure 27: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 149
  • Figure 28: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • Figure 29: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)………… 154
  • Figure 30: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
  • Figure 31: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 171
  • Figure 32: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 173
  • Figure 33: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • Figure 34: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 200
  • Figure 35: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 204
  • Figure 36: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)……………. 209
  • Figure 37: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 216
  • Figure 38: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219
  • Figure 39: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 230
  • Figure 40: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)……………… 233
  • Figure 41: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 242
  • Figure 42:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 243
  • Figure 43: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 244
  • Figure 44: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 245
  • Figure 45: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • Figure 46: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 246
  • Figure 47: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 247
  • Figure 48: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 248
  • Figure 49: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 50: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 249
  • Figure 51: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Figure 52: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 266
  • Figure 53: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 267
  • Figure 54: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 288
  • Figure 55: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 301
  • Figure 56: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 301
  • Figure 57: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 302
  • Figure 58: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 305
  • Figure 59: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
  • Figure 60: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 333
  • Figure 61: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 338