The Global Market for Printed Electronics

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Printing and imaging methods are being used to create innovative electronic components on a variety of substrates. Ultra thin printable electronic devices can be implemented flexibly and seamlessly in automobiles, energy generation, healthcare, or clothing,  opening up possibilities in new industries and application areas.

This 320 page report highlights the latest innovations and products in the printed electronics market, developed by large companies and start-ups. Report contents include:

  • Key industry developments in 2017 and market predictions for 2018.
  • Materials analysis: Materials used in printed electronics.
  • Types of printed electronics, properties, advantages and disadvantages.
  • Analysis of printing methods.
  • Market drivers and challenges in the printed electronics market.
  • Market analysis: Analysis of printed electronics markets and applications:
    • Conductive inks.
    • Wearables and IoT (flexible and stretchable electronics, components and systems for IoT and wireless sensors).
    • Medical and healthcare sensors and wearables (medicine, fitness and health, functional textiles with integrated displays, pharmaceutical packaging, biocompatible and biodegrdable substrates, biosensors )
    • Smart textiles and fabrics (stretchable and ultraflexible electronics in smart fabrics).
    • Energy storage and conversion (RF, piezo, thermal and solar harvesting).
    • Displays (flexible displays, electrochromic dimming mirrors and OLEDs in automotive, large-area electronic sensors).
    • Batteries (printable batteries and supercapacitors).
    • Logic and memory (novel interconnects, flexible transistors, organic and inorganic semiconductors).
  • Market revenues forecasts: Detailed forecasts of the printed electronics market, by end user markets, regions and applications (revenues $ millions), to 2027.
  • Producer profiles: Printed electronics company profiles (Profiles of over 300 companies)

 

Published December 2017 | 320 pages | Price £1100 | Table of contents

The Global Market for Printed Electronics
The Global Market for Printed Electronics
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The Global Market for Printed Electronics
The Global Market for Printed Electronics
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The Global Market for Printed Electronics
The Global Market for Printed Electronics
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 25

  • 1.1    The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
    • 1.1.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
    • 1.1.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………. 27
  • 1.2    What are printed electronics?…………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
    • 1.2.1     From rigid to printable…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
    • 1.2.2     Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 31
    • 1.2.3     New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
  • 1.3    Growth in the printed electronics market………………………………………………………………………… 36
    • 1.3.1     Recent growth in printable electronics products…………………………………………………….. 36
    • 1.3.2     Future growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
    • 1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver……………………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 1.3.4     Growth in wearables………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
    • 1.3.5     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………… 39
    • 1.3.6     Growth in printed automotive electronics……………………………………………………………….. 40
  • 1.4    Global market revenues to 2027…………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.4.1     Market structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
    • 1.4.2     Current market size………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 1.4.3     Global market by region…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
    • 1.4.4     Global market by applications………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • 1.5    Market challenges………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 47

  • 2.1    Study aims and objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
  • 2.2    Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

3    INTRODUCTION AND KEY MATERIALS ANALYSIS…………………. 49

  • 3.1    Organic and inorganic electronics………………………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • 3.2    Rigid versus printed, flexible and stretchable electronics……………………………………………….. 50
  • 3.3    Key materials in printed electronics, properties, benefits and applications…………………….. 52

4    CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………….. 55

  • 4.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • 4.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
  • 4.3    APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 4.3.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 4.3.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………… 59
    • 4.3.3     Touch screens……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
    • 4.3.4     Photovoltaics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
    • 4.3.5     RFID………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
    • 4.3.6     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 4.3.7     Smart clothing………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
    • 4.3.8     Printable sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 4.3.9     Printable antennas…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 4.3.10        In-mold electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 4.3.11        Printed transistors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 4.3.12        Stretchable inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • 4.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
    • 4.4.1     Global market revenues 2017-2027……………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • 4.5    COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78-113 (90 company profiles)

5    PRINTED SENSORS AND COMPONENTS FOR WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND IOT………………………………………………………….. 115

  • 5.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
  • 5.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
  • 5.3    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 119
    • 5.3.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
    • 5.3.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 122
    • 5.3.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 123
      • 5.3.3.1       Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………. 128
      • 5.3.3.2       Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………… 129
      • 5.3.3.3       Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
      • 5.3.3.4       Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
      • 5.3.3.5       Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
      • 5.3.3.6       Copper nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 5.3.3.7       Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 5.3.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 5.3.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 5.3.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 140
      • 5.3.4.3       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 145
      • 5.3.4.4       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 146
      • 5.3.4.5       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 146
      • 5.3.4.6       Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 5.3.4.7       Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
    • 5.3.5     Biomedical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………. 148
    • 5.3.6     Touch sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 5.3.7     Light sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 5.3.8     Temperature sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • 5.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
  • 5.4.1     Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • 5.5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155-178 (59 company profiles)

6    PRINTED MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES………………………………………………………………………….. 179

  • 6.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • 6.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
  • 6.3    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 183
    • 6.3.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
    • 6.3.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 189
    • 6.3.2.1       Skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
    • 6.3.2.2       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 6.3.3     Printable health monitors……………………………………………………………………………………… 191
      • 6.3.3.1       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 193
      • 6.3.3.2       Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 197
      • 6.3.3.3       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 198
      • 6.3.3.4       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 199
      • 6.3.3.5       UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
      • 6.3.3.6       Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • 6.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203
  • 6.5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 206-220 (34 company profiles)

7    PRINTED ELECTRONIC CLOTHING AND APPAREL………………. 221

  • 7.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
  • 7.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • 7.3    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
    • 7.3.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 225
    • 7.3.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 227
    • 7.3.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
    • 7.3.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
    • 7.3.5     Smart helmets………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • 7.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
  • 7.5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237-252 (35 company profiles)

8    PRINTED ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION………………… 252

  • 8.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • 8.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
  • 8.3    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
    • 8.3.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
    • 8.3.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 257
      • 8.3.2.1       Printed photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………. 258
      • 8.3.2.2       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 259
      • 8.3.2.3       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 260
      • 8.3.2.4       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 263
      • 8.3.2.5       Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 263
      • 8.3.2.6       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 265
      • 8.3.2.7       Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 266
      • 8.3.2.8       Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 270
      • 8.3.2.9       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 270
  • 8.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271
  • 8.5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 272-278 (24 company profiles)

9    PRINTABLE LOGIC AND MEMORY………………………………………. 278

  • 9.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
  • 9.2    MARKET CHALLENGES……………………………………………………………………………………………… 279
  • 9.3    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 279
    • 9.3.1     Oxide semiconductors………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279
    • 9.3.2     Organic semiconductors………………………………………………………………………………………. 280
    • 9.3.3     Printable circuit boards and interconnects……………………………………………………………. 280
    • 9.3.4     Printable transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 281
    • 9.3.5     Memory………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 282
  • 9.4    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 283
  • 9.5    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 283-285 (6 company profiles)

10 PRINTABLE DISPLAYS……………………………………………………….. 286

  • 10.1      MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 286
  • 10.2      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
  • 10.3      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 287
    • 10.3.1        Flexible LCDs…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
    • 10.3.2        Flexible OLEDs (FOLED)…………………………………………………………………………………. 290
    • 10.3.3        Flexible AMOLED…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 291
    • 10.3.4        Flexible electrophoretic displays………………………………………………………………………. 294
    • 10.3.5        Electrochromic displays……………………………………………………………………………………. 294
    • 10.3.6        Thermochromic………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295
  • 10.4      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 295
  • 10.5      COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 296-303 (20 company profiles)

11 PRINTED BATTERIES………………………………………………………….. 305

  • 11.1      MARKET DRIVERS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
  • 11.2      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 305
  • 11.3      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 306
    • 11.3.1        Types of printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………… 307
  • 11.4      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 309
  • 11.5      COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 311

TABLES

  • Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017……………………………………………………………………. 27
  • Table 2: Advanced materials for printable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
  • Table 3: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………….. 34
  • Table 4: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………….. 36
  • Table 5: Global market for printed electronics, by application to 2027, millions USD…………………. 43
  • Table 6: Market challenges for printed electronics……………………………………………………………………… 46
  • Table 7: Materials utilized in printed electronics…………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 8: Market drivers for printable conductive inks………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Table 9: Market challenges for printable conductive inks……………………………………………………………. 56
  • Table 10: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • Table 11: Comparative properties of conductive inks…………………………………………………………………. 58
  • Table 12: Applications in conductive inks by materials type and benefits thereof……………………….. 59
  • Table 13: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………….. 67
  • Table 14: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology…………………………. 72
  • Table 15: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues…………………………………….. 74
  • Table 16: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
  • Table 17: Market drivers for printed sensors and components for wearables and IoT……………… 114
  • Table 18: Market challenges for printed sensors and components for wearables and IoT……….. 118
  • Table 19: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 119
  • Table 20: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • Table 21: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 124
  • Table 22: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 142
  • Table 23: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………….. 152
  • Table 24: Market drivers for printed medical healthcare sensors and wearables……………………… 178
  • Table 25: Market challenges for printed medical healthcare sensors and wearables……………….. 181
  • Table 26: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 184
  • Table 27: Applications in printable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
  • Table 28: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………. 195
  • Table 29: Potential addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • Table 30: Global market fro printed medical and healthcare sensors and wearables 2017-2027. 203
  • Table 31: Market drivers for printed electronic clothing and apparel…………………………………………. 220
  • Table 32: Market challenges printed electronic clothing and apparel……………………………………….. 222
  • Table 33: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • Table 34: Examples of smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Table 35: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 224
  • Table 36: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………….. 224
  • Table 37: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 227
  • Table 38: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………….. 231
  • Table 39: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………… 235
  • Table 40: Market drivers for printed electronic energy storage and converison………………………… 251
  • Table 41: Market challenges for printable logic, memry and electronic components………………… 254
  • Table 42: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 255
  • Table 43: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Table 44: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
  • Table 45: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 267
  • Table 46: Market drivers for printable logic and memory………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Table 47: Market challenges for printable logic and memory……………………………………………………. 278
  • Table 48: Applications in printable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279
  • Table 49: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 281
  • Table 50: Market drivers for printable displays…………………………………………………………………………. 285
  • Table 51: Market challenges for printable displays…………………………………………………………………… 286
  • Table 52: Market challenges for printed batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 304
  • Table 53: Market challenges for printed batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 304
  • Table 54: Applications in printed batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………… 306
  • Table 55: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 308

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
  • Figure 2: Wove Band………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 31
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………… 32
  • Figure 5: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 40
  • Figure 6: Market structure for the printed electronics market……………………………………………………… 42
  • Figure 7: Global market for printed electronics, by application to 2027, millions USD………………… 44
  • Figure 8: Global printed electronics market by region 2017-2027………………………………………………. 45
  • Figure 9: Global printed electronics market by applications 2017-2027……………………………………… 45
  • Figure 10: BGT Materials graphene ink product…………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Figure 11: Flexible RFID tag……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Figure 12: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • Figure 13: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Figure 14: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics………………………………………….. 72
  • Figure 15: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………….. 72
  • Figure 16: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Figure 17: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
  • Figure 18: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 122
  • Figure 19: Royole flexible display……………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • Figure 20: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 125
  • Figure 21: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 133
  • Figure 22: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Figure 23: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • Figure 24: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • Figure 25: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 139
  • Figure 26: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 139
  • Figure 27: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 141
  • Figure 28: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • Figure 29: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
  • Figure 30: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 147
  • Figure 31: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………. 148
  • Figure 32: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………. 153
  • Figure 33: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 154
  • Figure 34: BITalino systems……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
  • Figure 35: BITalino system……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 161
  • Figure 36: Connected human body…………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
  • Figure 37: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Figure 38: Prototype ECG sensor patch…………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 39: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 190
  • Figure 40: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration……………………………. 193
  • Figure 41: Smart mouth guard………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • Figure 42: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
  • Figure 43: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • Figure 44: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 198
  • Figure 45: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 198
  • Figure 46: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 199
  • Figure 47: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………… 200
  • Figure 48: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………… 201
  • Figure 49: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
  • Figure 50: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………… 203
  • Figure 51: Global market fro printed medical and healthcare sensors and wearables 2017-2027. 205
  • Figure 52: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
  • Figure 53: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 54: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements……… 234
  • Figure 55:  BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………. 235
  • Figure 56: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2015-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • Figure 57 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016. 237
  • Figure 58: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 254
  • Figure 59: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………….. 255
  • Figure 60: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………. 256
  • Figure 61: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 259
  • Figure 62: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries………………………………. 261
  • Figure 63: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor………………………………………………………………………. 262
  • Figure 64: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………….. 264
  • Figure 65: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight……………………………………………. 265
  • Figure 66: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots………………………………………………. 266
  • Figure 67: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 267
  • Figure 68: Global market for printed energy storage and conversion 2015-2027……………………… 271
  • Figure 69: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………. 282
  • Figure 70: Global market for printed logic and memory 2015-2027………………………………………….. 283
  • Figure 71: LG Display LG Display 77-inch flexible transparent OLED display………………………….. 287
  • Figure 72: Flexible LCD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 289
  • Figure 73: “Full ActiveTM Flex”…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 290
  • Figure 74: FOLED schematic……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
  • Figure 75: Foldable display………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292
  • Figure 76: Stretchable AMOLED………………………………………………………………………………………………. 293
  • Figure 77: LGD 12.3” FHD Automotive OLED………………………………………………………………………….. 293
  • Figure 78: LECTUM® display…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 294
  • Figure 79: Global market for printed displays, 2015-2027 (billion $)…………………………………………. 296
  • Figure 80: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 308
  • Figure 81: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………….. 310
  • Figure 82: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2027, by market……………………….. 311
  • Figure 83: Global market for printed batteries, 2015-2027 (billion $)………………………………………… 311