The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings

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Self-cleaning coatings are completely transparent and allow for surfaces that are clean, stain resistant and dry, mainly for application on on glass in buildings, solar panels and cars. They can also be used as a waterproof protection for wood, masonry and tarpaulin.

Clean or self-cleaning surfaces can be achieved by two principally different approaches. A photocatalytic coating can be applied to the surface, where the effect of the sun’s ultraviolet rays catalytically breaks down organic dirt. At the same time the surface changes into a superhydrophilic at which time the water spreads evenly over the surface and less drying traces are formed by dripping.

Another way to manufacture a self-cleaning (bionic) surface in which the surface becomes a super-hydrophobic. Superhydrophobic coatings and films have a wide spectrum of applications; they are used not only for resisting water and fog condensation, but also for preventing contamination.

Report contents include:

  • Evolution of self-cleaning coatings to now and future prospects.
  • Development of autonomic and more durable self-cleaning coatings.
  • Analysis of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces and the emergence of super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic coatings technologies.
  • New developments in self-cleaning coatings including mutli-functional and smart self-cleaning coatings.
  • Applications and market analysis for self -cleaning coating in Construction, Automotive, Solar, Textiles and Apparel, Consumer Electronics, Medical Coatings, Marine and Household Care sectors.
  • Revenue forecasts to 2027 across all sectors.
  • 146 company profiles including products and target markets.

Published October 2017 | 236 pages 

The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
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The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
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The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
The Global Market for Self-Cleaning Coatings
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………. 22

  • 1.1    Aims and objectives of the study……………………………………………………………………………………. 22
  • 1.2    Market definition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • 1.2.1     Superhydrophobic surfaces……………………………………………………………………………………. 22
    • 1.2.2     Super-hydrophilic surfaces…………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 25

3    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 26

  • 3.1    High performance coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
  • 3.2    Nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
  • 3.3    Self-cleaning windows market………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
  • 3.4    Self-cleaning automotive market…………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • 3.5    Developments in solar cells……………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
  • 3.6    Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
    • 3.6.1     New functionalities and improved properties using nanomaterials…………………………. 29
    • 3.6.2     Need for more effective protection and improved asset sustainability……………………. 30
    • 3.6.3     Cost of weather-related damage……………………………………………………………………………. 31
    • 3.6.4     Cost of corrosion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
    • 3.6.5     Need for improved hygiene……………………………………………………………………………………. 32
    • 3.6.6     Increased demand for coatings for extreme environments…………………………………….. 33
    • 3.6.7     Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………………. 33
      • 3.6.7.1       VOC and odour reduction………………………………………………………………………………. 33
      • 3.6.7.2       Chemical to bio-based…………………………………………………………………………………… 34
  • 3.7    Market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
    • 3.7.1     Main markets………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
    • 3.7.2     Regional demand…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
  • 3.8    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
    • 3.8.1     Durability………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 3.8.2     Dispersion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
    • 3.8.3     Transparency…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
    • 3.8.4     Production, scalability and cost………………………………………………………………………………. 41

4    SELF-CLEANING COATINGS…………………………………………………. 44

  • 4.1    Properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
  • 4.2    Advanced materials used in coatings……………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • 4.3    Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
    • 4.3.1     Types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
    • 4.3.2     Main production and synthesis methods………………………………………………………………… 48
      • 4.3.2.1       Film coatings techniques……………………………………………………………………………….. 49
      • 4.3.2.2       Superhydrophobic coatings on substrates…………………………………………………….. 51
      • 4.3.2.3       Electrospray and electrospinning…………………………………………………………………… 52
      • 4.3.2.4       Chemical and electrochemical deposition……………………………………………………… 53
      • 4.3.2.5       Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)………………………………………………………………….. 54
      • 4.3.2.6       Physical vapor deposition (PVD)……………………………………………………………………. 55
      • 4.3.2.7       Atomic layer deposition (ALD)……………………………………………………………………….. 55
      • 4.3.2.8       Aerosol coating……………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
      • 4.3.2.9       Layer-by-layer Self-assembly (LBL)………………………………………………………………. 56
      • 4.3.2.10     Sol-gel process………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
      • 4.3.2.11     Etching…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
  • 4.4    Hydrophobic coatings and surfaces……………………………………………………………………………….. 59
    • 4.4.1     Hydrophilic coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
    • 4.4.2     Hydrophobic coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
      • 4.4.2.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • 4.5    Superhydrophobic coatings and surfaces………………………………………………………………………. 61
    • 4.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
    • 4.5.2     Durability issues…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
    • 4.5.3     Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • 4.6    Oleophobic and omniphobic coatings and surfaces……………………………………………………….. 65
    • 4.6.1     SLIPS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
    • 4.6.2     Covalent bonding…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
    • 4.6.3     Step-growth graft polymerization……………………………………………………………………………. 67
    • 4.6.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68

5    SELF-CLEANING NANOCOATINGS MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS     70

  • 5.1    Market structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • 5.2    SELF-CLEANING BIONIC COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 71
    • 5.2.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
      • 5.2.1.1       Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
      • 5.2.1.2       Minimize cleaning………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 5.2.2     Benefits of self-cleaning bionic coatings………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 5.2.3     Global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 5.3    SELF-CLEANING PHOTOCATALYTIC COATINGS………………………………………………………. 75
    • 5.3.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 77
      • 5.3.1.1       Combating infection and spread of microorganisms………………………………………. 77
      • 5.3.1.2       Reducing building maintenance…………………………………………………………………….. 77
      • 5.3.1.3       Reducing indoor air pollution and bacteria…………………………………………………….. 77
    • 5.3.2     Benefits of photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings……………………………………………………. 78
    • 5.3.3     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79
      • 5.3.3.1       Self-Cleaning Coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
      • 5.3.3.2       Indoor Air Pollution and Sick Building Syndrome…………………………………………… 80
      • 5.3.3.3       Outdoor Air Pollution……………………………………………………………………………………… 81
    • 5.3.4     Global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83

6    END USER MARKET ANALYSIS FOR SELF-CLEANING COATINGS     86

  • 6.1    AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
    • 6.1.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
      • 6.1.1.1       Regulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
      • 6.1.1.2       Safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
      • 6.1.1.3       Aesthetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
      • 6.1.1.4       Surface protection………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
      • 6.1.1.5       Increase in the use of touch-based automotive displays……………………………….. 87
    • 6.1.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
    • 6.1.3     Global market size…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88
      • 6.1.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity…………………………………………………………………. 88
      • 6.1.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027…………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • 6.2    EXTERIOR COATINGS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 6.2.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
      • 6.2.1.1       Reduced maintenance and cost…………………………………………………………………….. 90
      • 6.2.1.2       Increased protection………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
      • 6.2.1.3       Environmental regulations……………………………………………………………………………… 91
    • 6.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
      • 6.2.2.1       Protective coatings for glass, concrete and other construction materials………. 92
      • 6.2.2.2       Photocatalytic nano-TiO2 coatings………………………………………………………………… 93
      • 6.2.2.3       Anti-graffiti……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
      • 6.2.2.4       UV-protection…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
      • 6.2.2.5       Titanium dioxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 6.2.2.6       Zinc oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………………………… 96
    • 6.2.3     Global market size…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 6.2.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity…………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 6.2.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027…………………………………………………………………………… 97
  • 6.3    HOUSEHOLD CARE, SANITARY AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY…………………………………… 99
    • 6.3.1     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 6.3.1.1       Food safety on surfaces………………………………………………………………………………… 99
      • 6.3.1.2       Reducing cleaning cycles………………………………………………………………………………. 99
    • 6.3.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 6.3.2.1       Self-cleaning and easy-to-clean…………………………………………………………………….. 99
      • 6.3.2.2       Food preparation and processing………………………………………………………………….. 99
      • 6.3.2.3       Indoor pollutants and air quality…………………………………………………………………… 100
    • 6.3.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
      • 6.3.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 101
      • 6.3.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………… 102
  • 6.4    MARINE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
    • 6.4.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
      • 6.4.1.1       Need to reduce biofouling……………………………………………………………………………. 103
      • 6.4.1.2       Reducing fuel consumption and costs…………………………………………………………. 104
      • 6.4.1.3       Reducing pollution and environmental protection………………………………………… 104
      • 6.4.1.4       Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
    • 6.4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
    • 6.4.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
      • 6.4.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 106
      • 6.4.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………… 106
  • 6.5    CONSUMER ELECTRONICS………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
    • 6.5.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
      • 6.5.1.1       Waterproofing and permeability…………………………………………………………………… 108
      • 6.5.1.2       Improved aesthetics and reduced maintenance………………………………………….. 110
      • 6.5.1.3       Wearable electronics market growing………………………………………………………….. 110
      • 6.5.1.4       Electronics packaging………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
    • 6.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
      • 6.5.2.1       Waterproof electronics coatings…………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 6.5.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
      • 6.5.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 112
      • 6.5.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • 6.6    MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………………………………………………. 114
    • 6.6.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
      • 6.6.1.1       Need for reduced biofouling and improve biocompatibility of medical implants 114
      • 6.6.1.2       Need for improved hygiene and anti-infection on materials and surfaces……. 115
      • 6.6.1.3       Need to reduce bacterial infection in wound care………………………………………… 115
      • 6.6.1.4       Need for new medical textile solutions…………………………………………………………. 116
    • 6.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
      • 6.6.2.1       Anti-fouling…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
      • 6.6.2.2       Anti-microbial and infection control………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 6.6.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
      • 6.6.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 117
      • 6.6.3.2       Global revenues 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • 6.7    TEXTILES AND APPAREL…………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
    • 6.7.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
      • 6.7.1.1       Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles……………………………………………. 120
      • 6.7.1.2       Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………….. 121
      • 6.7.1.3       Environmental and regulatory……………………………………………………………………… 121
      • 6.7.1.4       Increase in demand UV protection textiles and apparel………………………………. 122
    • 6.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
    • 6.7.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 127
      • 6.7.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 128
      • 6.7.3.2       Global market revenues 2010-2027…………………………………………………………….. 129
  • 6.8    RENEWABLE ENERGY……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.8.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
      • 6.8.1.1       Wind turbine protection………………………………………………………………………………… 131
      • 6.8.1.2       Solar panel protection………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 6.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
      • 6.8.2.1       Wind energy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.8.2.2       Solar…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
      • 6.8.2.3       Anti-reflection………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 6.8.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
      • 6.8.3.1       Self-cleaning coatings opportunity……………………………………………………………….. 134
      • 6.8.3.2       Global market revenues 2010-2027…………………………………………………………….. 134
  • 6.9    AEROSPACE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 6.9.1     Market drivers and trends…………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
      • 6.9.1.1       Improved performance…………………………………………………………………………………. 136
      • 6.9.1.2       Improved safety…………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
      • 6.9.1.3       Increased durability……………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.9.1.4       Improved aesthetics and functionality………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 6.9.1.5       Reduced maintenance costs……………………………………………………………………….. 137
    • 6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
      • 6.9.2.1       Icing prevention……………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
      • 6.9.2.2       Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic corrosion resistance……………………………. 139
      • 6.9.2.3       Insect contamination……………………………………………………………………………………. 140
    • 6.9.3     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140

7    SELF-CLEANING COATINGS COMPANIES…………………………… 143- 236 (146 company profiles)

TABLES

  • Table 1: Properties of nanocoatings…………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
  • Table 2: Markets for self-cleaning coatings………………………………………………………………………………… 35
  • Table 3 Global market for self-cleaning coatings 2010-2025, million USD…………………………………. 37
  • Table 4: Disadvantages of commonly utilized superhydrophobic coating methods…………………….. 42
  • Table 5: Advanced materials used in advanced coatings and applications………………………………… 46
  • Table 6: Technology for synthesizing nanocoatings agents……………………………………………………….. 48
  • Table 7: Film coatings techniques………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Table 8: Contact angles of hydrophilic, super hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • Table 9: Applications of oleophobic & omniphobic coatings……………………………………………………….. 68
  • Table 10: Self-cleaning coatings market structure………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Table 11: Self-cleaning (bionic) coatings-Materials used, principles, properties and applications. 71
  • Table 12: Self-cleaning (bionic) coatings-Markets and applications……………………………………………. 75
  • Table 13: Self-cleaning (photocatalytic) coatings-Materials used, principles, properties and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Table 14: Photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings-Markets, applications and potential addressable market size by 2027……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • Table 15: Advanced coatings applied in the automotive industry……………………………………………….. 87
  • Table 16: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the automotive industry, 2010-2025, US$, conservative and optimistic estimate…………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Table 17: Advanced coatings applied in the construction industry……………………………………………… 91
  • Table 18: Photocatalytic nanocoatings-Markets and applications………………………………………………. 94
  • Table 19: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in construction, architecture and exterior protection, 2010-2027, US$……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
  • Table 20: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air quality, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates…………………………………………………….. 102
  • Table 21: Self-cleaning coatings applied in the marine industry……………………………………………….. 105
  • Table 22: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the marine sector, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 106
  • Table 23: Self-cleaning coatings applied in the consumer electronics industry………………………… 111
  • Table 24: Main hydrophobic, superhydrophobic nanocoatings product developers in waterproofing electronics and coatings techniques…………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 25: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the consumer electronics sector, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 112
  • Table 26: Types of advanced coatings applied in medical devices and implants……………………… 117
  • Table 27: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in medical and healthcare, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Table 28: Advanced coatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
  • Table 29: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in textiles and apparel, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 129
  • Table 30: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in renewable energy, 2010-2027, US$……………. 134
  • Table 31: Types of self-cleaning coatings utilized in aerospace and application………………………. 138
  • Table 32: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the aerospace industry, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 141

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Water droplets on a lotus leaf………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
  • Figure 2 Basic schematic of the lotus effect……………………………………………………………………………….. 23
  • Figure 3 Transport mechanisms of dirt particles on super-hydrophobic (a) and super-hydrophilic (b) surfaces, respectively…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
  • Figure 4: Self-cleaning window film…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • Figure 5 Global market for self-cleaning coatings 2010-2025, million USD………………………………… 38
  • Figure 6: Regional demand for self-cleaning coatings, 2016………………………………………………………. 39
  • Figure 7: Techniques for constructing superhydrophobic coatings on substrates………………………. 51
  • Figure 8: Electrospray deposition……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
  • Figure 9: CVD technique…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
  • Figure 10: SEM images of different layers of TiO2 nanoparticles in steel surface………………………. 57
  • Figure 11: (a) Water drops on a lotus leaf…………………………………………………………………………………… 59
  • Figure 12: A schematic of (a) water droplet on normal hydrophobic surface with contact angle greater than 90° and (b) water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle > 150°………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 13: Contact angle on superhydrophobic coated surface………………………………………………….. 62
  • Figure 14: Sneakers ER superhydrophobic sneakers protector………………………………………………….. 63
  • Figure 15: Schematic of contact angle (CA) for a water drop placed on surfaces of different hydrophobicities……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
  • Figure 16: Self-cleaning nanocellulose dishware………………………………………………………………………… 65
  • Figure 17: SLIPS repellent coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Figure 18: Omniphobic coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
  • Figure 19: Schematic of typical commercialization route for self-cleaningh coatings producer…… 70
  • Figure 20: Self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating schematic…………………………………………………… 74
  • Figure 21: Titanium dioxide-coated glass (left) and ordinary glass (right)…………………………………… 77
  • Figure 22: Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles……………… 79
  • Figure 23:  Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface……….. 80
  • Figure 24: Principle of superhydrophilicity………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Figure 25: Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) air filter……………………………………………………………………… 81
  • Figure 26: Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement…………………………………………………… 82
  • Figure 27:  Self-Cleaning mechanism utilizing photooxidation……………………………………………………. 83
  • Figure 28: Tokyo Station GranRoof. The titanium dioxide coating ensures long-lasting whiteness. 84
  • Figure 29: Markets for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) coatings, %……………………………………………….. 84
  • Figure 30: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the automotive industry, 2010-2027, US$…….. 90
  • Figure 31: Mechanism of photocatalytic NOx oxidation on active concrete road………………………… 94
  • Figure 32: FN® photocatalytic coating, applied in the Project of Ecological Sound Barrier, in Prague………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • Figure 33: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in construction, architecture and exterior protection, 2010-2027, US$……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
  • Figure 34: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air quality, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates…………………………………………………….. 103
  • Figure 35: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the marine sector, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • Figure 36: Phone coated in WaterBlock submerged in water tank……………………………………………. 109
  • Figure 37: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the consumer electronics sector, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates……………………………………………………………………….. 114
  • Figure 38: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in medical and healthcare, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 120
  • Figure 39: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • Figure 40: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in textiles and apparel, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 130
  • Figure 41: Self-Cleaning Hydrophobic Coatings on solar panels……………………………………………… 132
  • Figure 42: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in renewable energy, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
  • Figure 43: Revenues for self-cleaning coatings in the aerospace industry, 2010-2027, US$, conservative and optimistic estimates………………………………………………………………………………… 142