The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027

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Updated April 2018 | 351 pages | Table of contents

The number and variety of wearable electronic devices and smart textiles has increased significantly in the past few years, as they offer significant enhancements to human comfort, health and well-being. Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized (e.g. Google glass, Apple Watch). There is increasing demand for wearable electronics from industries such as:

  • Medical and healthcare monitoring and diagnostics.
  • Sportswear and fitness monitoring (bands).
  • Consumer electronics such as smart watches, smart glasses and headsets.
  • Military GPS trackers, equipment (helmets) and wearable robots.
  • Smart apparel and footwear in fashion and sport.
  • Workplace safety and manufacturing.

Advances in smart electronics enable wearable sensor devices and there are a number of devices that are near or already on the market. Textile manufacturers have brought sensor based smart textiles products to the market, mainly for the collection of bio-data (e.g. heart-rate, body temperature etc.) and in workplace safety. The use of textiles as the smart devices themselves also presents significant advantages over watches and wristbands in terms of long-term use.Despite considerable R&D investment, most current wearables do not use flexible or printed components; instead they rely on conventional components from mobile devices. Most currently available wearable technology is based on rigid components. Flexible electronics offers conformable, adaptable, and immersive wearable devices. Recent advancements in flexible and stretchable electronics enabled by advanced materials provides viable solutions to bio-integrated wearable electronics.

Printed electronics and energy harvesting technologies are evolving to meet the demands of new, wearable formats. Next-generation wearables will rely on active fabrics made by weaving conductor, insulator and semiconductor fibers sparsely into textile yarn. Fabrics woven from such yarns will enable electronic functions that seamlessly integrate into every day, comfortable, lightweight clothing. Sensor tattoos and wearable motion charging devices are now in early commercial stages.

Included in this report:

  • Market drivers and trends for wearables and smart textiles 
  • How advanced materials are applied in wearables and smart textile
  • In-depth analysis of current state of the art and products in wearables and smart textile
  • Over 250 wearables and smart textiles product developer profiles
  • Market revenues for wearables and smart textile across all sectors
  • Market challenges.
The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
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The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
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The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
The Global Market for Wearables and Smart Textiles to 2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 28

  • 1.1    What are smart textiles?…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
  • 1.2    The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
    • 1.2.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
    • 1.2.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………. 33
  • 1.3    What are wearable electronics?……………………………………………………………………………………… 34
    • 1.3.1     From rigid to flexible and stretchable……………………………………………………………………… 34
    • 1.3.2     Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 37
    • 1.3.3     New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • 1.4    Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market……………………………………………………… 41
    • 1.4.1     Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products………………………………… 41
    • 1.4.2     Future growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 1.4.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver……………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.4.4     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………… 44

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 46

3    WEARABLES AND SMART TEXTILES MATERIALS ANALYSIS… 47

  • 3.1    CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 3.1.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 48
      • 3.1.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.1.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 51
  • 3.2    CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)…………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • 3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
      • 3.2.1.1       PDMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
      • 3.2.1.2       PEDOT: PSS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
    • 3.2.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 54
    • 3.2.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 56
  • 3.3    GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 3.3.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 59
    • 3.3.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 59
  • 3.4    METAL MESH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
    • 3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
    • 3.4.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 63
    • 3.4.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 64
  • 3.5    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
    • 3.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
    • 3.5.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 67
    • 3.5.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 68
      • 3.5.3.1       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 70
      • 3.5.3.2       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
  • 3.6    NANOFIBERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 3.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 3.6.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 74
    • 3.6.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 74
  • 3.7    QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
    • 3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
    • 3.7.2     Properties utilized in wearables and smart textiles…………………………………………………. 77
    • 3.7.3     Applications in wearables and smart textiles………………………………………………………….. 78
  • 3.8    SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)……………………………………………………….. 79
    • 3.8.1     Silver flake……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
    • 3.8.2     Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
      • 3.8.2.1       Conductivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
    • 3.8.3     Silver nanowires…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
    • 3.8.4     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
    • 3.8.4.1       Cost for printed area………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
  • 3.9    COPPER INK…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
    • 3.9.1     Silver-coated copper………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
    • 3.9.2     Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………. 85
    • 3.9.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
  • 3.10      GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………… 86
    • 3.10.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 3.10.2        Applications in wearables and smart textiles……………………………………………………… 88
  • 3.11      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
    • 3.11.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………… 89
      • 3.11.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 89
      • 3.11.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 91
    • 3.11.2        Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………………………. 92
      • 3.11.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
      • 3.11.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 93
    • 3.11.3        Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
      • 3.11.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
      • 3.11.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 95
    • 3.11.4        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
      • 3.11.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 3.11.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 96
    • 3.11.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
      • 3.11.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
      • 3.11.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 97
    • 3.11.6        Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
      • 3.11.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 3.11.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 99
    • 3.11.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 3.11.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 3.11.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 101
    • 3.11.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………….. 103
      • 3.11.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
      • 3.11.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 104
    • 3.11.9        Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
      • 3.11.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
      • 3.11.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 106
    • 3.11.10      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
      • 3.11.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
      • 3.11.10.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 109
    • 3.11.11      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
      • 3.11.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 3.11.11.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 110
    • 3.11.12      Antimonene……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 3.11.12.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 3.11.12.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 3.11.13      Indium selenide………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
      • 3.11.13.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
      • 3.11.13.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 112

4    CONDUCTIVE INKS FOR WEARABLES AND SMART TEXTILES 113

  • 4.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
  • 4.2    CONDUCTIVE INK TYPES………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • 4.3    PRINTING METHODS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 4.3.1     Nanoparticle ink……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • 4.4    Sintering……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
  • 4.5    Conductive Filaments…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 4.6    Conductive films, foils and grids…………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 4.7    Inkjet printing In flexible electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • 4.8    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
    • 4.8.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
    • 4.8.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 123
    • 4.8.3     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
    • 4.8.4     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 4.8.5     Smart clothing………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 4.8.6     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
    • 4.8.7     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
    • 4.8.8     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
    • 4.8.9     In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135
    • 4.8.10        Printed transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
  • 4.9    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
  • 4.10      COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140-183 (102 company profiles)

5    WEARABLE ELECTRONICS, SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………….. 185

  • 5.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 185
  • 5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
    • 5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 190
    • 5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 192
    • 5.2.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 193
      • 5.2.3.1       Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………. 198
      • 5.2.3.2       Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………… 200
      • 5.2.3.3       Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
      • 5.2.3.4       Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………….. 202
      • 5.2.3.5       Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
      • 5.2.3.6       Copper nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
      • 5.2.3.7       Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
    • 5.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
      • 5.2.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 208
      • 5.2.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 210
      • 5.2.4.3       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 216
      • 5.2.4.4       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 217
      • 5.2.4.5       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 217
      • 5.2.4.6       Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 218
      • 5.2.4.7       Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • 5.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
    • 5.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • 5.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222-248 (60 company profiles)

6    MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SMART TEXTILES AND WEARABLES………………………………………………………………………….. 250

  • 6.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
  • 6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
    • 6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 253
    • 6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 258
      • 6.2.2.1       Skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 258
      • 6.2.2.2       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………… 259
    • 6.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………….. 260
      • 6.2.3.1       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 262
      • 6.2.3.2       Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 266
      • 6.2.3.3       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
      • 6.2.3.4       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 267
      • 6.2.3.5       UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 269
      • 6.2.3.6       Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 271
  • 6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 271
  • 6.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 273-288 (37 company profiles)

7    SMART AND INTERACTIVE TEXTILES AND APPAREL………….. 289

  • 7.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
  • 7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 290
    • 7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 291
    • 7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 293
    • 7.2.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
    • 7.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 302
    • 7.2.5     Smart helmets………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 304
    • 7.2.6     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 305
  • 7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
  • 7.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 310-323 (34 company profiles)

8    ENERGY HARVESTING SMART TEXTILES……………………………. 324

  • 8.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 324
  • 8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 326
    • 8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 326
    • 8.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 329
      • 8.2.2.1       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 329
      • 8.2.2.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 331
      • 8.2.2.3       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 333
      • 8.2.2.4       Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 334
      • 8.2.2.5       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 335
      • 8.2.2.6       Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 336
      • 8.2.2.7       Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 339
      • 8.2.2.8       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 340
  • 8.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 340
  • 8.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 343-350 (17 company profiles)

TABLES

  • Table 1: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • Table 2: Smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
  • Table 3: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017……………………………………………………………………. 32
  • Table 4: Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • Table 5: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………….. 40
  • Table 6: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………….. 42
  • Table 7: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………… 47
  • Table 8: Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in smart textiles and wearables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Table 9: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………… 54
  • Table 10: Properties of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
  • Table 11: Companies developing graphene for applications smart textiles and wearables………… 60
  • Table 12: Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Table 13: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………. 63
  • Table 14: Companies developing metal mesh for applications in smart textiles and wearables…. 64
  • Table 16: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • Table 17: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 67
  • Table 18: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………….. 67
  • Table 19: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………….. 71
  • Table 20: Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in smart textiles and wearables. 73
  • Table 21: Companies developing quantum dots for applications in smart textiles and wearables. 79
  • Table 22: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………. 87
  • Table 23: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………. 87
  • Table 24: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 91
  • Table 25: Market drivers for conductive inks in smart textiles and wearables ………………………….. 113
  • Table 26: Typical conductive ink formulation…………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • Table 27:  Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks…………………………….. 118
  • Table 28: Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks……………………………….. 119
  • Table 29: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • Table 30: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 123
  • Table 31: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof…………………………………….. 124
  • Table 32: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………… 130
  • Table 33: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
  • Table 34: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 137
  • Table 35: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………….. 138
  • Table 36: Conductive inks in the wearable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140
  • Table 37: Market drivers for wearable sensors…………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Table 38: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 190
  • Table 39: Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 40: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Table 41: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
  • Table 42: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 214
  • Table 43: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………….. 220
  • Table 44: Market drivers for medical healthcare smart textiles and wearables…………………………. 250
  • Table 45: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 254
  • Table 46: Applications in wearable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 260
  • Table 47: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………. 264
  • Table 48: Market drivers for smart clothing and apparel…………………………………………………………… 289
  • Table 49: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 291
  • Table 50: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………….. 292
  • Table 51: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 294
  • Table 52: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 297
  • Table 53: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………….. 303
  • Table 54: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………… 308
  • Table 55: Market drivers for energy harvesting smart textiles…………………………………………………… 324
  • Table 56: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 328
  • Table 57: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
  • Table 58: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
  • Table 59: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 338
  • Table 60: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 341

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Graphene LEDs incorporated into a dress…………………………………………………………………… 28
  • Figure 2: Mimo Baby Monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
  • Figure 3: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
  • Figure 4: Wove Band………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  • Figure 5: Wearable graphene medical sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • Figure 6: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………… 38
  • Figure 7: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 45
  • Figure 8: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube………………………………………………………………. 50
  • Figure 9: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics………………………. 50
  • Figure 10: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • Figure 11: Flexible graphene touch screen…………………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Figure 12: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • Figure 13: Large-area metal mesh touch panel………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Figure 15:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Figure 16: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 69
  • Figure 17: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………….. 70
  • Figure 18: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Figure 19: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 72
  • Figure 20: Paper memory (ReRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Figure 21: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 22: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Figure 23: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots………………………………………………… 79
  • Figure 24: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Figure 25: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Figure 26: Copper based inks on flexible substrate……………………………………………………………………. 85
  • Figure 27: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
  • Figure 28: Black Phosphorus crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
  • Figure 29: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
  • Figure 30: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • Figure 31: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 32: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
  • Figure 33: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 34: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………….. 98
  • Figure 35: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 100
  • Figure 36: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
  • Figure 37: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 102
  • Figure 38: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • Figure 39: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 104
  • Figure 40: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Figure 41: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 106
  • Figure 42: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • Figure 43: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 108
  • Figure 44: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 108
  • Figure 45: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 109
  • Figure 46: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 112
  • Figure 47: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 129
  • Figure 48: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
  • Figure 49: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • Figure 50: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • Figure 51: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………….. 135
  • Figure 52: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics………………………………………… 136
  • Figure 53: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………… 136
  • Figure 54: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………. 137
  • Figure 55: Conductive inks in the wearable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
  • Figure 56: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192
  • Figure 57: Royole flexible display……………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
  • Figure 58: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 196
  • Figure 59: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • Figure 60: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • Figure 61: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 205
  • Figure 62: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
  • Figure 63: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 210
  • Figure 64: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 210
  • Figure 65: C2Sense flexible sensor………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • Figure 66: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 212
  • Figure 67: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 213
  • Figure 68: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 217
  • Figure 69: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 218
  • Figure 70: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………… 218
  • Figure 71: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 72: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $. Figures do not include medical smart wearables and textiles and smart glasses…………………………………. 220
  • Figure 73: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
  • Figure 74: BITalino systems……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 231
  • Figure 75: Connected human body…………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
  • Figure 76: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 254
  • Figure 77: Prototype ECG sensor patch…………………………………………………………………………………… 258
  • Figure 78: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 259
  • Figure 79: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration……………………………. 262
  • Figure 80: Smart mouth guard………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 262
  • Figure 81: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 264
  • Figure 82: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Figure 83: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 266
  • Figure 84: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
  • Figure 85: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 267
  • Figure 86: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………… 268
  • Figure 87: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………… 269
  • Figure 88: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 270
  • Figure 89: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………… 271
  • Figure 90: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Figure 91: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
  • Figure 92: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 293
  • Figure 93: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 302
  • Figure 94: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements……… 304
  • Figure 95:  BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………. 305
  • Figure 96: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 306
  • Figure 97: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 308
  • Figure 98 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016. 309
  • Figure 99: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 326
  • Figure 100: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………… 327
  • Figure 101: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Figure 102: Printed 1.5V battery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
  • Figure 103: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries……………………………. 332
  • Figure 104: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 332
  • Figure 105: LG OLED flexible lighting panel…………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • Figure 106: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………….. 335
  • Figure 107: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots…………………………………………….. 336
  • Figure 108: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 337
  • Figure 109: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………… 342
  • Figure 110: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2027, by market……………………… 343