The Global Market for Graphene, 17th Edition

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Future Markets, Inc. produced the first ever market report on graphene and the latest edition (17th, June 2018) is over 800 pages of market leading analysis. We have greatly expanded the sections covering flexible electronics, wearables and energy and details on industry demand in tons (current and projected) has been added for key markets.

A number of graphene-enhanced products came to the market in 2017 in consumer electronic equipment, composites, energy storage etc. and commercial development will grow further in 2018 in automotive, flexible electronics, coatings and sensors.

Published: June 2018 | Pages: 802 pages | 226 tables, 206 figures | Price: £1000 | Table of contents

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2027.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Market outlook for 2018.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tons 2017-2027.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 230 company profiles.

 

Additional information from previous editions includes:

  • 20 new company profiles.
  • Expanded product developer profiles, by market.
  • Assessment of the market in 2018.
  • Expanded data on addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications, graphene technology fit and competition from other materials.
  • New information on demand by regional demand by end user market.
  • Latest product and investment news to June 2018.
  • Commercial production capacities by company, and by year, for Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nanolatelets and CVD Graphene in tons and m2

Companies who have recently purchased this report include: Calloway GolfThe Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Grafoid, Denso Corporation, ITRI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Directa-Plus, KIST Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Sasol, Lubrizol, Cabot Corporation, ICL and many more….

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 61

  • 1.1    Market opportunity analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
  • 1.2    Market challenges rating system……………………………………………………………………………………. 63

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 66

  • 2.1    Two-dimensional (2D) materials…………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
  • 2.2    Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
    • 2.2.1     The market in 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
    • 2.2.2     The market in 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 2.2.3     The market in 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 2.2.4     The market to 2027-Applications and markets with greatest potential returns……….. 69
    • 2.2.5     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
    • 2.2.6     Products…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 2.2.7     Graphene investments 2016-2018…………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • 2.3    Market outlook for 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75
    • 2.3.1     Global funding and initiatives…………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 2.3.2     Products and applications………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 2.3.3     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • 2.3.4     Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • 2.3.5     Market and technical challenges……………………………………………………………………………. 92
  • 2.4    Key players…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 2.4.1     Asia-Pacific…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
    • 2.4.2     North America………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99
    • 2.4.3     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 100

3    PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS…………………………………….. 102

  • 3.1    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 103

4    OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE…………………………………………………. 105

  • 4.1    History………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
  • 4.2    Forms of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
  • 4.3    Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
  • 4.4    3D Graphene………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
  • 4.5    Graphene Quantum Dots……………………………………………………………………………………………… 109
    • 4.5.1     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
    • 4.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111
      • 4.5.2.1       Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics………………………………………………….. 111
      • 4.5.2.2       Energy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
      • 4.5.2.3       Biomedicine and healthcare………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 4.5.2.4       Other……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 112
      • 4.5.2.5       Pricing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
    • 4.5.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113

5    CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE……………………….. 115

  • 5.1    Comparative properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
  • 5.2    Cost and production……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
  • 5.3    Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………………………….. 118
  • 5.4    Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene……………………………………………. 119

6    OTHER 2-D MATERIALS………………………………………………………. 121

  • 6.1    Beyond moore’s law……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • 6.2    Batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123
  • 6.3    PHOSPHORENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
    • 6.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
      • 6.3.1.1       Fabrication methods…………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
      • 6.3.1.2       Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices………………………………………. 126
    • 6.3.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
      • 6.3.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
      • 6.3.2.2       Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
      • 6.3.2.3       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
      • 6.3.2.4       Supercapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
      • 6.3.2.5       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
      • 6.3.2.6       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
    • 6.3.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 6.4    GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)…………………………………………………………………… 130
    • 6.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 6.4.2     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 131
    • 6.4.3     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 6.4.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
      • 6.4.4.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.2       Filtration membranes…………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.3       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 132
      • 6.4.4.4       Batteries (LIBs)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
      • 6.4.4.5       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 6.4.5     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • 6.5    GERMANENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
    • 6.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
    • 6.5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
      • 6.5.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
      • 6.5.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 6.5.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 6.6    GRAPHDIYNE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
    • 6.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
    • 6.6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
      • 6.6.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
      • 6.6.2.2       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 136
      • 6.6.2.3       Separation membranes……………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 6.6.2.4       Water filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.6.2.5       Photocatalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
      • 6.6.2.6       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
    • 6.6.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 138
  • 6.7    GRAPHANE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
    • 6.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
    • 6.7.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
      • 6.7.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
      • 6.7.2.2       Hydrogen storage………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
    • 6.7.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 140
  • 6.8    HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
    • 6.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
    • 6.8.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
      • 6.8.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.2       Fuel cells……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.3       Adsorbents…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.4       Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
      • 6.8.2.5       Textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
      • 6.8.2.6       Biomedical…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
    • 6.8.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 143
  • 6.9    MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 6.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
    • 6.9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
      • 6.9.2.1       Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
      • 6.9.2.2       Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      • 6.9.2.3       Piezoelectrics………………………………………………………………………………………………. 146
      • 6.9.2.4       Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 6.9.2.5       Filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 6.9.2.6       Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
      • 6.9.2.7       Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
    • 6.9.3     Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………………. 148
  • 6.10      RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)……………………………………. 148
    • 6.10.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 6.10.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
      • 6.10.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
    • 6.10.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 149
  • 6.11      SILICENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
    • 6.11.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
    • 6.11.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 6.11.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
      • 6.11.2.2     Photovoltaics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
      • 6.11.2.3     Thermoelectrics…………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
      • 6.11.2.4     Batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
      • 6.11.2.5     Sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 6.11.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 153
  • 6.12      STANENE/TINENE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
    • 6.12.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 6.12.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
      • 6.12.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
    • 6.12.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 155
  • 6.13      TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
    • 6.13.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 6.13.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
      • 6.13.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 6.13.3        Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • 6.14      ANTIMONENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 157
    • 6.14.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 6.14.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • 6.15      DIAMENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 6.15.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 6.15.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
  • 6.16      INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 6.16.1        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 6.16.2        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
      • 6.16.2.1     Electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
  • 6.17      COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS…………. 160

7    GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS……………………………………………………… 162

  • 7.1    Large area graphene films……………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • 7.2    Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………….. 163
  • 7.3    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 164
    • 7.3.1     Production directly from natural graphite ore……………………………………………………….. 167
    • 7.3.2     Alternative starting materials………………………………………………………………………………… 167
    • 7.3.3     Quality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 168
  • 7.4    Synthesis and production by types of graphene…………………………………………………………… 169
    • 7.4.1     Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)………………………………………………………………………….. 169
    • 7.4.2     Graphene nanoribbons………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 7.4.3     Large-area graphene films…………………………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 7.4.4     Graphene oxide (GO)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 172
  • 7.5    Pros and cons of graphene production methods………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 7.5.1     Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)……………………………………………………………………….. 174
    • 7.5.2     Exfoliation method……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
    • 7.5.3     Epitaxial growth method……………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
    • 7.5.4     Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation)………………………………………………….. 178
    • 7.5.5     Micromechanical cleavage method………………………………………………………………………. 179
    • 7.5.6     Green reduction of graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………… 180
    • 7.5.7     Plasma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 7.6    Recent synthesis methods……………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
  • 7.7    Synthesis methods by company…………………………………………………………………………………… 186

8    GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION…………………………………………………………….. 188

9    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS……………………………………….. 192

  • 9.1    Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • 9.2    Environmental, health and safety regulation………………………………………………………………… 192
    • 9.2.1     Europe…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
    • 9.2.2     United States……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
    • 9.2.3     Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
  • 9.3    Workplace exposure…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS……………………………………………. 195

  • 10.1      Fabrication processes………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • 10.2      Academia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • 10.3      Regional leaders………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL……………………………………… 199

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION………………………. 201

  • 12.1      JANUARY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
  • 12.2      FEBRUARY 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
  • 12.3      APRIL 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
  • 12.4      MAY 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
  • 12.5      JUNE 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
  • 12.6      JULY 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
  • 12.7      AUGUST 2013…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 203
  • 12.8      SEPTEMBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 204
  • 12.9      OCTOBER 2013………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
  • 12.10    NOVEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204
  • 12.11    DECEMBER 2013……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 205
  • 12.12    JANUARY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • 12.13    FEBRUARY 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • 12.14    MARCH 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • 12.15    APRIL 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
  • 12.16    MAY 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
  • 12.17    JUNE 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 210
  • 12.18    JULY 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • 12.19    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 212
  • 12.20    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212
  • 12.21    AUGUST 2014…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • 12.22    SEPTEMBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 214
  • 12.23    OCTOBER 2014………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
  • 12.24    NOVEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
  • 12.25    DECEMBER 2014……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 216
  • 12.26    JANUARY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • 12.27    FEBRUARY 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 218
  • 12.28    MARCH 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 218
  • 12.29    APRIL 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219
  • 12.30    MAY 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 220
  • 12.31    JUNE 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • 12.32    JULY 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • 12.33    AUGUST 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • 12.34    SEPTEMBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 223
  • 12.35    OCTOBER 2015………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 224
  • 12.36    NOVEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225
  • 12.37    DECEMBER 2015……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 227
  • 12.38    JANUARY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
  • 12.39    FEBRUARY 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
  • 12.40    MARCH 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
  • 12.41    APRIL 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 230
  • 12.42    MAY 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • 12.43    JUNE 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 235
  • 12.44    JULY 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 235
  • 12.45    AUGUST 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • 12.46    SEPTEMBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
  • 12.47    OCTOBER 2016………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
  • 12.48    NOVEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 238
  • 12.49    DECEMBER 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 240
  • 12.50    JANUARY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
  • 12.51    FEBRUARY 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
  • 12.52    MARCH 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 241
  • 12.53    APRIL 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
  • 12.54    MAY 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
  • 12.55    JUNE 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 244
  • 12.56    JULY 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
  • 12.57    AUGUST 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 246
  • 12.58    SEPTEMBER 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 247
  • 12.59    OCTOBER 2017………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
  • 12.60    NOVEMBER 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
  • 12.61    DECEMBER 2017……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 250
  • 12.62    JANUARY 2018……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
  • 12.63    FEBRUARY 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
  • 12.64    MARCH 2018…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 254
  • 12.65    APRIL 2018……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
  • 12.66    MAY 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 256
  • 12.67    JUNE 2018………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257

13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………….. 257

  • 13.1      Graphene production volumes 2010-2027……………………………………………………………….. 257
  • 13.2      Commercial production capacities……………………………………………………………………………. 259
    • 13.2.1        Graphene oxide……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 259
    • 13.2.2        Graphene nanoplatelets…………………………………………………………………………………… 262
    • 13.2.3        CVD graphene film…………………………………………………………………………………………… 264
    • 13.2.4        Planned graphene capacities 2018 onwards……………………………………………………. 265
  • 13.3      Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 265
    • 13.3.1        Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing…………………………………………………………………….. 267
    • 13.3.2        Few-Layer Graphene pricing……………………………………………………………………………. 268
    • 13.3.3        Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing………………………………………………………………………. 269
    • 13.3.4        Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing……………………………………………………………………. 269
    • 13.3.5        Graphene Quantum Dots pricing……………………………………………………………………… 270
    • 13.3.6        Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing……………………………………………………………….. 271
    • 13.3.7        Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing………………………………………………………………….. 272
    • 13.3.8        Mass production of lower grade graphene materials……………………………………….. 272
    • 13.3.9        High grade graphene difficult to mass produce………………………………………………… 273
    • 13.3.10      Bulk supply………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 273
    • 13.3.11      Commoditisation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 274

14 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 274

  • 14.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 274
  • 14.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • 14.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 276
  • 14.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 278
  • 14.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 279

15 ADHESIVES………………………………………………………………………… 281

  • 15.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • 15.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 281
  • 15.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 283
  • 15.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
  • 15.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 288

16 AEROSPACE………………………………………………………………………. 290

  • 16.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 290
  • 16.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 291
    • 16.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 291
    • 16.2.2        Coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 292
  • 16.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY…………………………………………………………. 294
  • 16.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 298
  • 16.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 299

17 AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………… 303

  • 17.1      MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS……………………………………………………………………………. 303
  • 17.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 304
    • 17.2.1        Composites……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 305
    • 17.2.2        Thermally conductive additives………………………………………………………………………… 305
    • 17.2.3        Tires…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • 17.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 307
  • 17.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 311
  • 17.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 312

18 COATINGS………………………………………………………………………….. 317

  • 18.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 317
  • 18.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 322
    • 18.2.1        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 324
    • 18.2.1.1     Marine………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 325
    • 18.2.2        Anti-microbial…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 325
    • 18.2.3        Anti-icing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 326
    • 18.2.4        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 327
    • 18.2.5        Heat protection………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
    • 18.2.6        Anti-fouling……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 329
    • 18.2.7        Wear and abrasion resistance…………………………………………………………………………. 330
    • 18.2.8        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………… 331
  • 18.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 332
    • 18.3.1        Thermal barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………….. 335
    • 18.3.2        Barrier coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
    • 18.3.3        Anti-microbial coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 336
    • 18.3.4        De-icing or anti-icing coatings………………………………………………………………………….. 336
    • 18.3.5        Abrasion and wear resistant coatings………………………………………………………………. 336
    • 18.3.6        Anti-corrosion coatings…………………………………………………………………………………….. 336
  • 18.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 341
  • 18.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 342

19 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 346

  • 19.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 346
  • 19.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 349
    • 19.2.1        Polymer composites…………………………………………………………………………………………. 349
    • 19.2.2        Barrier packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 351
    • 19.2.3        Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 352
    • 19.2.4        Wind turbines…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 352
    • 19.2.5        Ballistic protection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 352
  • 19.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 352
  • 19.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 356
  • 19.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 357

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS………………………………………… 362

  • 20.1      FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS. 362
    • 20.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 362
    • 20.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 364
      • 20.1.2.1     Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics………………………………………………. 368
      • 20.1.2.2     Electronic paper…………………………………………………………………………………………… 370
      • 20.1.2.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 370
      • 20.1.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 374
      • 20.1.2.5     Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 380
      • 20.1.2.6     Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 380
    • 20.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 381
      • 20.1.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes……………………………………………………………… 386
    • 20.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 387
    • 20.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 391
  • 20.2      CONDUCTIVE INKS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 393
    • 20.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 393
    • 20.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 394
      • 20.2.2.1     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 396
      • 20.2.2.2     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 399
      • 20.2.2.3     Smart clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 399
      • 20.2.2.4     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………. 400
      • 20.2.2.5     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………… 400
      • 20.2.2.6     Printable antennas………………………………………………………………………………………. 402
    • 20.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 403
    • 20.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 408
    • 20.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 409
  • 20.3      TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS……………………………………………………… 412
    • 20.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 412
    • 20.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 413
      • 20.3.2.1     Integrated circuits………………………………………………………………………………………… 413
      • 20.3.2.2     Transistors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 415
      • 20.3.2.3     Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits…………………………………………………….. 415
      • 20.3.2.4     Graphene spintronics…………………………………………………………………………………… 416
    • 20.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 417
    • 20.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 421
    • 20.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 423
  • 20.4      MEMORY DEVICES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 425
    • 20.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 425
    • 20.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 426
    • 20.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 430
    • 20.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 432
    • 20.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 434
  • 20.5      PHOTONICS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 434
    • 20.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 435
    • 20.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 435
      • 20.5.2.1     Si photonics versus graphene……………………………………………………………………… 436
      • 20.5.2.2     Optical modulators………………………………………………………………………………………. 437
      • 20.5.2.3     Photodetectors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 437
      • 20.5.2.4     Saturable absorbers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 439
      • 20.5.2.5     Plasmonics………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 439
      • 20.5.2.6     Fiber lasers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 439
    • 20.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 440
    • 20.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 442
    • 20.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 443

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION………. 445

  • 21.1      BATTERIES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 446
    • 21.1.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 446
    • 21.1.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 450
      • 21.1.2.1     Lithium-ion batteries (LIB)……………………………………………………………………………. 450
      • 21.1.2.2     Lithium-air batteries……………………………………………………………………………………… 451
      • 21.1.2.3     Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S)……………………………………………………………………… 451
      • 21.1.2.4     Sodium-ion batteries……………………………………………………………………………………. 451
      • 21.1.2.5     Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 451
    • 21.1.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 455
    • 21.1.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 460
    • 21.1.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 462
  • 21.2      SUPERCAPACITORS……………………………………………………………………………………………… 468
    • 21.2.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 468
    • 21.2.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 468
      • 21.2.2.1     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 471
    • 21.2.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 473
    • 21.2.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 476
    • 21.2.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 477
  • 21.3      PHOTOVOLTAICS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 479
    • 21.3.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 479
    • 21.3.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 480
      • 21.3.2.1     ITO replacement………………………………………………………………………………………….. 481
      • 21.3.2.2     Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells……………………………….. 481
      • 21.3.2.3     Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids…………………………………………………………… 482
      • 21.3.2.4     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………… 482
    • 21.3.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 484
    • 21.3.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 487
    • 21.3.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 488
  • 21.4      FUEL CELLS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 490
    • 21.4.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 490
    • 21.4.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 491
      • 21.4.2.1     Electrocatalyst supports………………………………………………………………………………. 492
    • 21.4.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 493
    • 21.4.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 496
    • 21.4.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 497
  • 21.5      LED LIGHTING AND UVC……………………………………………………………………………………….. 499
    • 21.5.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 499
    • 21.5.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 499
      • 21.5.2.1     Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 500
    • 21.5.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 501
    • 21.5.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 504
    • 21.5.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 505
  • 21.6      OIL AND GAS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 507
    • 21.6.1        MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………. 507
    • 21.6.2        PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………. 508
      • 21.6.2.1     Sensing and reservoir management……………………………………………………………. 509
      • 21.6.2.2     Coatings………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 510
      • 21.6.2.3     Drilling fluids………………………………………………………………………………………………… 511
      • 21.6.2.4     Sorbent materials………………………………………………………………………………………… 512
      • 21.6.2.5     Catalysts……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 512
      • 21.6.2.6     Separation…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 513
    • 21.6.3        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 514
    • 21.6.4        MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………. 518
    • 21.6.5        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 519

22 FILTRATION……………………………………………………………………….. 520

  • 22.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 520
  • 22.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 521
    • 22.2.1        Graphene membranes…………………………………………………………………………………….. 522
    • 22.2.2        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 523
    • 22.2.3        Gas separation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 523
    • 22.2.4        Photocatalytic absorbents………………………………………………………………………………… 524
    • 22.2.5        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 524
  • 22.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 525
  • 22.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 529
  • 22.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 530

23 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL……………………………………………. 533

  • 23.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 534
  • 23.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 537
    • 23.2.1        Cancer therapy………………………………………………………………………………………………… 540
      • 23.2.1.1     Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery…………………………………………….. 541
      • 23.2.1.2     Graphene nanosheets…………………………………………………………………………………. 541
      • 23.2.1.3     Gene delivery………………………………………………………………………………………………. 541
      • 23.2.1.4     Photodynamic Therapy………………………………………………………………………………… 541
    • 23.2.2        Medical implants and devices………………………………………………………………………….. 542
    • 23.2.3        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 542
    • 23.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 543
      • 23.2.4.1     FRET biosensors for DNA detection……………………………………………………………. 544
    • 23.2.5        Medical imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 544
    • 23.2.6        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 544
    • 23.2.7        Dental………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 545
    • 23.2.8        Electrophysiology…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 545
    • 23.2.9        Wearable and mobile health monitoring…………………………………………………………… 545
      • 23.2.9.1     Graphene devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 547
      • 23.2.9.2     Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 549
      • 23.2.9.3     Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 551
      • 23.2.9.4     Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 552
      • 23.2.9.5     Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 553
      • 23.2.9.6     Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 555
  • 23.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 555
    • 23.3.1        Wearable healthcare………………………………………………………………………………………… 556
  • 23.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 561
  • 23.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 563

24 LUBRICANTS……………………………………………………………………… 566

  • 24.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 566
  • 24.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 567
  • 24.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 568
  • 24.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 572
  • 24.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 573

25 RUBBER AND TIRES…………………………………………………………… 575

  • 25.1      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 575
  • 25.2      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 575
  • 25.3      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 578
  • 25.4      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 579

26 SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 580

  • 26.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 580
  • 26.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS………………………………………………………………………. 582
    • 26.2.1        Infrared (IR) sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 585
    • 26.2.2        Electrochemical and gas sensors…………………………………………………………………….. 585
    • 26.2.2.1     Graphene foam……………………………………………………………………………………………. 586
    • 26.2.3        Pressure sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 586
    • 26.2.4        Biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 587
    • 26.2.5        Optical sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 589
    • 26.2.6        Humidity sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 589
    • 26.2.7        Strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 589
    • 26.2.8        Acoustic sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 589
    • 26.2.9        Wireless sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 589
    • 26.2.10      Surface enhanced Raman scattering……………………………………………………………….. 590
  • 26.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 590
  • 26.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 593
  • 26.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 594

27 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL……………………………………….. 598

  • 27.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 598
  • 27.2      PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS……………………………………………………………………….. 602
    • 27.2.1        Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………. 606
    • 27.2.2        Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………… 607
  • 27.3      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………………. 608
  • 27.4      MARKET CHALLENGES…………………………………………………………………………………………. 614
  • 27.5      PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………………. 615

28 OTHER MARKETS……………………………………………………………….. 618

  • 28.1      CEMENT ADDITIVES………………………………………………………………………………………………. 618
    • 28.1.1        GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY………………………………………………. 618
    • 28.1.2        PRODUCT DEVELOPERS………………………………………………………………………………. 620

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS……………………………………………………. 623-706 (125 profiles)

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS……. 707774 (120 profiles)

31 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 776

 

TABLES

  • Table 1: Addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications,  graphene technology fit and competition from other materials……………………………………………………………… 69
  • Table 2: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2027……………………………………………………………………… 71
  • Table 3: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Table 4: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017………………………………………………… 74
  • Table 5: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications………………………………… 77
  • Table 6: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size…………….. 82
  • Table 7: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities………………………. 83
  • Table 8: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………………… 87
  • Table 9: Categorization of nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………………. 103
  • Table 10: Properties of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………… 108
  • Table 11: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs…………………………………………… 110
  • Table 12: Graphene quantum dot producers……………………………………………………………………………. 113
  • Table 13: Comparative properties of carbon materials……………………………………………………………… 116
  • Table 14: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes……………. 118
  • Table 15: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
  • Table 16: 2D materials types……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 121
  • Table 17: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 125
  • Table 18: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications…………………………………. 129
  • Table 19: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications………………….. 133
  • Table 20: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications……………………………………. 135
  • Table 21: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications…………………………………….. 138
  • Table 22: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications……………………………………….. 140
  • Table 23: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications…………………. 143
  • Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications……………………. 148
  • Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications………………………………………….. 153
  • Table 27: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications………………………………… 155
  • Table 28: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………….. 157
  • Table 29: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials……………………………… 160
  • Table 30: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 162
  • Table 31: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 163
  • Table 32: Main production methods for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Table 33: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market……………. 172
  • Table 34: Graphene synthesis methods, by company………………………………………………………………. 186
  • Table 35: Graphene market structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
  • Table 36: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014…………………………………………… 196
  • Table 37: Leading graphene patentees…………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
  • Table 38: Industrial graphene patents in 2014………………………………………………………………………….. 197
  • Table 39: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
  • Table 40: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018…………………. 260
  • Table 41: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018………………………….. 261
  • Table 42: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018……………………… 262
  • Table 43: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018……………………………….. 263
  • Table 44: CVD graphene film capacity in tons by country/year, 2010-2018/ 000s m2………………. 264
  • Table 45: Planned graphene production capacities………………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Table 46: Types of graphene and prices…………………………………………………………………………………… 266
  • Table 47: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 267
  • Table 48: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer…………………………………………………………………… 268
  • Table 49: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer…………………………………………………………….. 269
  • Table 50: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer…………………………………………………………. 270
  • Table 51: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer……………………………………………………………. 271
  • Table 52: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer……………………………………………………… 271
  • Table 53: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer………………………………………………………………….. 272
  • Table 54: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing……………………………………………………… 274
  • Table 55: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing……………………………………….. 276
  • Table 56: Market size for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………………………………………….. 276
  • Table 57: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing…………………………………….. 277
  • Table 58: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 277
  • Table 59: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
  • Table 60: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives………………………………………………………. 281
  • Table 61: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives………………………………………… 282
  • Table 62: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives…………………………………………………. 282
  • Table 63: Market size for graphene in adhesives……………………………………………………………………… 283
  • Table 64: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives………………………………………. 284
  • Table 65: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 286
  • Table 66: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market……………………………….. 287
  • Table 67: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace……………………………………………………… 290
  • Table 68: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace………………………………………………… 293
  • Table 69: Market size for graphene in aerospace…………………………………………………………………….. 295
  • Table 70: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace……………………………………… 296
  • Table 71: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 297
  • Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market………………………………. 299
  • Table 73: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector…………………………………….. 303
  • Table 74: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry…………………………….. 306
  • Table 75: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry………………………………………………… 307
  • Table 76: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry…………………. 308
  • Table 77: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 310
  • Table 78: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector………………………………. 312
  • Table 79: Properties of nanocoatings……………………………………………………………………………………….. 317
  • Table 80: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings…………………………………………… 323
  • Table 81: Markets for nanocoatings………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
  • Table 82: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market……………………….. 339
  • Table 83: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………… 340
  • Table 84: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market………………………………….. 342
  • Table 85: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites…………………………………………………….. 346
  • Table 86: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites…………………………. 349
  • Table 87: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites……………………………………………….. 350
  • Table 88: Market size for graphene in composites……………………………………………………………………. 352
  • Table 89: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market………………….. 354
  • Table 90: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 356
  • Table 91: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market…………………………….. 357
  • Table 92: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films………… 362
  • Table 93: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films…… 366
  • Table 94: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 367
  • Table 95: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 371
  • Table 96: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 378
  • Table 97: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films……………………….. 381
  • Table 98: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays……………………………………………………………………………………………… 383
  • Table 99: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………….. 385
  • Table 100: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2027………………………………. 385
  • Table 101: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 390
  • Table 102: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………. 393
  • Table 103: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………… 394
  • Table 104: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………. 396
  • Table 105: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………. 398
  • Table 106: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 400
  • Table 107: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks……………………………. 405
  • Table 108: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 407
  • Table 109: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………….. 407
  • Table 110: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks……………………………………………… 408
  • Table 111: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 412
  • Table 112: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors……………………………………. 415
  • Table 113: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 416
  • Table 114: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components…. 418
  • Table 115: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 419
  • Table 116: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2027………. 420
  • Table 117: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 422
  • Table 118: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices…………………………………………… 425
  • Table 119: Market size for graphene in memory devices………………………………………………………….. 430
  • Table 120: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………. 431
  • Table 121: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 432
  • Table 122: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics……………………………………………………… 435
  • Table 123: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators………………………….. 437
  • Table 124: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics………………………………………………… 440
  • Table 125: Market size for graphene in photonics…………………………………………………………………….. 440
  • Table 126: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 441
  • Table 127: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market……………………………… 443
  • Table 128: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries………………………………………………………. 447
  • Table 129: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………. 452
  • Table 130: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 454
  • Table 131: Market size for graphene in batteries……………………………………………………………………… 456
  • Table 132: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries………………… 457
  • Table 133: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries………………………………………. 458
  • Table 134: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 459
  • Table 135: Market challenges for graphene in energy……………………………………………………………… 460
  • Table 136: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market……………………………….. 461
  • Table 137: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors…………………………………………… 468
  • Table 138: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries……… 469
  • Table 139: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………. 470
  • Table 140: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 472
  • Table 141: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors………………………………………………………….. 473
  • Table 142: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors…………………………… 475
  • Table 143: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027………………………………….. 475
  • Table 144: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market……………………. 477
  • Table 145: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics……………………………………………….. 479
  • Table 146: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 484
  • Table 147: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………………………………………. 485
  • Table 148: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics………………………………………………………. 485
  • Table 149: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………. 486
  • Table 150: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market……………………………………… 488
  • Table 151: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…………………… 490
  • Table 152: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage……………… 492
  • Table 153: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage………………………………….. 493
  • Table 154: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage…… 494
  • Table 155: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 495
  • Table 156: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market……………………………….. 496
  • Table 157: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC………………………………….. 499
  • Table 158: Applications of graphene in lighting………………………………………………………………………… 499
  • Table 159: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC…………………………………………………. 501
  • Table 160: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market………………… 502
  • Table 161: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………… 503
  • Table 162: Market impediments for graphene in lighting………………………………………………………….. 504
  • Table 163: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas……………………………………………………………… 507
  • Table 164: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market………………………………………………… 508
  • Table 165: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 514
  • Table 166: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………. 515
  • Table 167: Potential addressable market for graphene in the oil and gas market…………………….. 516
  • Table 168: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………….. 517
  • Table 169: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market……………………………. 518
  • Table 170: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration………………………………………………………… 520
  • Table 171: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation………………………….. 522
  • Table 172: Market size for graphene in filtration……………………………………………………………………….. 526
  • Table 173: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market…………………………. 527
  • Table 174: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market. 527
  • Table 175: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 528
  • Table 176: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market………… 529
  • Table 177: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market…………… 534
  • Table 178: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare…………… 537
  • Table 179: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical……………………….. 538
  • Table 180: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 548
  • Table 181: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare………………………………………….. 555
  • Table 182: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets… 558
  • Table 183: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets……. 559
  • Table 184: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027……………………. 560
  • Table 185: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare………………………………. 562
  • Table 186: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market……. 563
  • Table 187: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants……………………………………………………… 566
  • Table 188: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market…………………………………………………… 568
  • Table 189: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants…………………………………………………. 568
  • Table 190: Market size for graphene in lubricants…………………………………………………………………….. 569
  • Table 191: Potential addressable market for graphene in the lubricants market………………………. 570
  • Table 192: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants…………………………………….. 570
  • Table 193: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 571
  • Table 194: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market……………………………… 572
  • Table 195: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires…………………………………………………………… 575
  • Table 196: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market………….. 575
  • Table 197: Potential addressable market for graphene in the rubber and tires market…………….. 576
  • Table 198: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market…… 577
  • Table 199: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027………………………………….. 577
  • Table 200: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires………………………………………………… 578
  • Table 201: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors………………………………………………………… 580
  • Table 202: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors…………………………………………………… 582
  • Table 203: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………….. 584
  • Table 204: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 588
  • Table 205: Market size for graphene in sensors……………………………………………………………………….. 590
  • Table 206: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market……………………… 591
  • Table 207: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 593
  • Table 208: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market………………………………… 594
  • Table 209: Types of smart textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………. 598
  • Table 210: Smart textile products……………………………………………………………………………………………… 599
  • Table 211: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………………………. 600
  • Table 212: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 602
  • Table 213: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 605
  • Table 214: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………… 607
  • Table 215: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………. 609
  • Table 216: Potential addressable market for graphene in the smart textiles market…………………. 612
  • Table 217: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel……………. 612
  • Table 218: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………… 613
  • Table 219: Market impediments for graphene in textiles…………………………………………………………… 614
  • Table 220: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………………….. 615
  • Table 221: Potential addressable market for graphene in the cement market………………………….. 619
  • Table 222: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………….. 619
  • Table 223: Graphene producers and types produced………………………………………………………………. 623
  • Table 224: Graphene producers target market matrix………………………………………………………………. 627
  • Table 225: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets………….. 707
  • Table 226: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix………………………… 711

 

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Demand for graphene, 2010-2027………………………………………………………………………………. 72
  • Figure 2: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • Figure 3: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 76
  • Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017………………………………. 81
  • Figure 5: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region……………………………………………………….. 91
  • Figure 6: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2017………………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 7: Demand for graphene in China, by market, 2027………………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 8: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2017……………………………………………….. 95
  • Figure 9: Demand for graphene in Asia-Pacific, by market, 2027……………………………………………….. 96
  • Figure 10: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences………………………………………………….. 97
  • Figure 11: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2017…………………………………………. 99
  • Figure 12: Demand for graphene in North America, by market, 2027………………………………………. 100
  • Figure 13: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2017………………………………………………….. 100
  • Figure 14: Demand for graphene in Europe, by market, 2027………………………………………………….. 101
  • Figure 15: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Figure 16: Graphite and graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………. 106
  • Figure 17: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
  • Figure 18: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4)………………… 110
  • Figure 19: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots……………………………………………………………… 112
  • Figure 20: Graphene quantum dots………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
  • Figure 21: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
  • Figure 22: Schematic of 2-D materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 122
  • Figure 23: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………… 124
  • Figure 24: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………… 125
  • Figure 25: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
  • Figure 26: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • Figure 27: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology……………………………. 132
  • Figure 28: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
  • Figure 29: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 136
  • Figure 30: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………… 139
  • Figure 31: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • Figure 32: BN nanosheet textiles application……………………………………………………………………………. 143
  • Figure 33: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 144
  • Figure 34: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • Figure 35: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 146
  • Figure 36: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 147
  • Figure 37: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide……………………………………………………….. 149
  • Figure 38: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
  • Figure 39: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 151
  • Figure 40: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • Figure 41: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Figure 42: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 154
  • Figure 43: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Figure 44: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • Figure 45: Fabrication methods of graphene……………………………………………………………………………. 165
  • Figure 46: Graphene synthesis methods………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
  • Figure 47: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF.. 168
  • Figure 48: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium…………………………………………………………. 171
  • Figure 49: Schematic illustration of the main graphene production techniques………………………… 174
  • Figure 50: Graphene synthesis-CVD technique……………………………………………………………………….. 175
  • Figure 51: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd. (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co. Ltd……………………………………. 177
  • Figure 52: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG. 180
  • Figure 53: Roll-to-roll graphene production process…………………………………………………………………. 182
  • Figure 54: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process……………………………………………………….. 182
  • Figure 55: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene………………………… 184
  • Figure 56: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer……………………… 188
  • Figure 57: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014………………………………………….. 197
  • Figure 58: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 200
  • Figure 59: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year……………………………………………….. 259
  • Figure 60: Graphene oxide production capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018…………………………. 261
  • Figure 61: Graphene nanoplatelets capacity in tons by region, 2010-2018………………………………. 263
  • Figure 62: CVD Graphene on Cu Foil……………………………………………………………………………………….. 264
  • Figure 63: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament……………………………….. 275
  • Figure 64: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………. 278
  • Figure 65: Graphene Adhesives……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 282
  • Figure 66: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives………………………………………… 286
  • Figure 67: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 287
  • Figure 68: Graphene aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 292
  • Figure 69: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace……………………………………….. 296
  • Figure 70: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace………. 297
  • Figure 71: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 298
  • Figure 72: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargio container………………………………………………………….. 300
  • Figure 73: Graphene-based automotive components……………………………………………………………….. 305
  • Figure 74: Antistatic graphene tire……………………………………………………………………………………………. 306
  • Figure 75: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 309
  • Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector………………………. 310
  • Figure 77: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 311
  • Figure 78: Supercar incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………………………….. 313
  • Figure 79: Graphene tire…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 314
  • Figure 80: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT…………………………………………………………………… 323
  • Figure 81: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 328
  • Figure 82: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate………………………………………. 331
  • Figure 83: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 332
  • Figure 84: Graphene based anti-corrosion steel coatings………………………………………………………… 337
  • Figure 85: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 339
  • Figure 86: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market…………………………. 340
  • Figure 87: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 341
  • Figure 88: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites………………………………………. 354
  • Figure 89: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market…………………….. 355
  • Figure 90: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………….. 356
  • Figure 91: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application………………………………………….. 365
  • Figure 92: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………. 365
  • Figure 93: Galapad Settler smartphone……………………………………………………………………………………. 366
  • Figure 94: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode…………………… 367
  • Figure 95: Graphene electrochromic devices. Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device. The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte………………………………………………. 369
  • Figure 96: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film…………………………. 370
  • Figure 97: Foldable graphene E-paper…………………………………………………………………………………….. 370
  • Figure 98: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 372
  • Figure 99: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375
  • Figure 100: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………. 376
  • Figure 101: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………. 376
  • Figure 102: C2Sense flexible sensor………………………………………………………………………………………… 377
  • Figure 103: Wearable gas sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379
  • Figure 104: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves……………………………………………………….. 380
  • Figure 105: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System……………………………………………………… 380
  • Figure 106: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system…………………………………………………….. 381
  • Figure 107: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market…………………………………………………………………………………. 384
  • Figure 108: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $……….. 384
  • Figure 109: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2027…………………………….. 386
  • Figure 110: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 387
  • Figure 111: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 389
  • Figure 112: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………. 390
  • Figure 113: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………… 396
  • Figure 114: Printed graphene conductive ink……………………………………………………………………………. 397
  • Figure 115: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 397
  • Figure 116: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink…………………………………………………………. 400
  • Figure 117: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………. 402
  • Figure 118: Graphene printed antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 402
  • Figure 119: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………… 403
  • Figure 120: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products……………………………………………………………. 404
  • Figure 121: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market……………… 404
  • Figure 122: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 406
  • Figure 123: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………. 408
  • Figure 124: Graphene IC in wafer tester…………………………………………………………………………………… 414
  • Figure 125: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array………………………………………………….. 414
  • Figure 126: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right)……………………………………………………………………………………… 416
  • Figure 127: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits….. 419
  • Figure 128: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 420
  • Figure 129: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2027……… 421
  • Figure 130: The GF1 Graphene Watch…………………………………………………………………………………….. 425
  • Figure 131: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate………………………………… 427
  • Figure 132: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM)………………………………………………………………………….. 428
  • Figure 133: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt.. 428
  • Figure 134: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip………………………………………………………………………………. 429
  • Figure 135: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………… 429
  • Figure 136: Potential addressable market for graphene in the memory devices market…………… 431
  • Figure 137: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2027………………………………… 432
  • Figure 138: Hybrid graphene phototransistors………………………………………………………………………….. 438
  • Figure 139: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors…………………………. 438
  • Figure 140: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive…………………………………………………………………………………………… 439
  • Figure 141: Potential addressable market for graphene in photonics……………………………………….. 441
  • Figure 142: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 442
  • Figure 143: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 446
  • Figure 144: Energy harvesting textile……………………………………………………………………………………….. 449
  • Figure 145: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………….. 452
  • Figure 146: Printed 1.5V battery……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 454
  • Figure 147: H600 concept car…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 456
  • Figure 148: Anion concept car………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 456
  • Figure 149: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 459
  • Figure 150: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………….. 460
  • Figure 151: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 469
  • Figure 152: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger……………………………………………………………………. 471
  • Figure 153: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 472
  • Figure 154: Potential addressable market for graphene in supercapacitors……………………………… 474
  • Figure 155: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………. 476
  • Figure 156: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode………………………………………………… 481
  • Figure 157: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 483
  • Figure 158: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics………………………………….. 486
  • Figure 159: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………… 487
  • Figure 160: Potential addressable market for graphene in fuel cells………………………………………… 494
  • Figure 161: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………. 496
  • Figure 162: LG OLED flexible lighting panel…………………………………………………………………………….. 500
  • Figure 163: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………….. 501
  • Figure 164: Potential addressable market for graphene in lighting…………………………………………… 502
  • Figure 165: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 504
  • Figure 166: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors……………………… 509
  • Figure 167: Directa Plus Grafysorber……………………………………………………………………………………….. 512
  • Figure 168: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 513
  • Figure 169: Potential addressable market for graphene in lighting…………………………………………… 515
  • Figure 170: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………. 518
  • Figure 171: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 524
  • Figure 172: Graphene anti-smog mask…………………………………………………………………………………….. 525
  • Figure 173: Potential addressable market for graphene in the filtration market………………………… 525
  • Figure 174: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 529
  • Figure 175: Graphene filtration membrane……………………………………………………………………………….. 531
  • Figure 176: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel. Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 543
  • Figure 177: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis……. 544
  • Figure 178: Connected human body………………………………………………………………………………………… 546
  • Figure 179: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor……………………………………………………………….. 546
  • Figure 180: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………….. 548
  • Figure 181: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 550
  • Figure 182: Graphene medical patch……………………………………………………………………………………….. 551
  • Figure 183: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………… 552
  • Figure 184: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………… 552
  • Figure 185: Nanowire skin hydration patch………………………………………………………………………………. 553
  • Figure 186: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………. 553
  • Figure 187: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………. 554
  • Figure 188: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 557
  • Figure 189: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 558
  • Figure 190: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 560
  • Figure 191: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027………………….. 561
  • Figure 192: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………………… 572
  • Figure 193: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027…………………………………. 578
  • Figure 194: GFET sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 586
  • Figure 195: First generation point of care diagnostics………………………………………………………………. 587
  • Figure 196: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic…………………………………………………………. 588
  • Figure 197: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market………………………… 592
  • Figure 198: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2027……………………………………………… 593
  • Figure 199: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 608
  • Figure 200: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 609
  • Figure 201 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 610
  • Figure 202: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 611
  • Figure 203: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 611
  • Figure 204: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 614
  • Figure 205: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2027………………………………………………. 620
  • Figure 206: Graphene added to cement…………………………………………………………………………………… 621