The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2018-2027: Cellulose nanofibers, Cellulose nanocrystals and Bacterial cellulose particles

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Published: February 2018 | 412 pages, 138 table, 65 figures | Table of contents

Companies who have recently bought this report include: Shinshu University, Youlchon ChemicalKorea Automotive Technology InstituteSynthomer UK Ltd, Imerys, International Paper, Kruger, Sappi, Natural FriendKorea Minting and Security Printing Corporation and many more….

The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2018-2027 covers Cellulose nanofibers (NFC), Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and Bacterial cellulose particles (BC) and provides an in-depth analysis of the current and future markets for these remarkable materials.

Nanocellulose will greatly impact environmentally friendly and biodegradable solutions in market such as packaging, paper & board, composites, coatings & films, medical & healthcare, textiles, oil & gas, filtration, rheology modifiers, aerogels, 3D printing and printed & flexible electronics.

Most major paper and pulp producers are actively involved in commercialization of Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)s, seeking commercial application in high volume industries such as paper & board and packaging. However, several are also seeking to move into applications in areas such as electronics and pivoting towards production of Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) for more advanced applications. The nanocellulose market is growing fast in Japan, with products already on the market in textiles and consumer goods.

Daio Paper Corp., has recently launched a paper toilet cleaner made from cellluose nanofibers (CNF) and Nippon Paper Industries has established Japan’s largest cellulose nanofiber (CNF) production line at its plant in the city of Ishinomaki with a planned annual production of 500 tons. Industrial activity is increasing in 2018 due to the success of these products. Daio Paper has recently started production of cellulose nanofibers (CNF) at a 10-tons/year pilot plant facility mainly for application in fiber reinforcement for plastic composites.

Report contents include: 

  • Global nanocellulose production capacities, by producer and type of nanocellulose.
  • Most likely commercial applications.
  • Current nanocellulose products (cellulose nanofibers, cellulose nanocrystals and bacterial cellulose).
  • Stage of commercialization for nanocellulose applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for nanocellulose including revenues, growth rates, pricing, and market challenges.
  • Revenues and tonnage demand for end user markets for nanocellulose.
  • Regional analysis of the market for nanocellulose.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes, target markets and commmercial activities.

Companies featured in this report include American Process, Inc., Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Borregaard Chemcell, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., Daicel Corporation, Daio Paper Corporation, Imerys, Innventia AB, Kruger Bioproducts, Inc, Stora Enso Ltd. and many more.

The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2018-2027
The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Nanocellulose 2018-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 31

1.1    The current market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32

1.1.1     Transition into products………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

1.1.2     Markets and applications……………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

1.1.3     Cost still an issue…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

1.1.4     Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………….. 38

1.2    Production worldwide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41

1.2.1     Production plants and production status………………………………………………………………… 42

1.2.2     Growth of the market in Japan……………………………………………………………………………….. 44

1.3    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

1.3.1     Demand for sustainable materials………………………………………………………………………….. 45

1.3.2     Enhanced products for paper and board industries……………………………………………….. 45

1.3.3     Unique properties lead to new products…………………………………………………………………. 46

1.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration…………………………………. 46

1.4    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

1.4.1     Characterization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

1.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

1.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

1.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………….. 48

1.4.5     Scalability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48

1.4.6     Lack of current products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

1.4.7     Cost-competitiveness with traditional technology…………………………………………………… 49

1.5    Global Nanocellulose market size………………………………………………………………………………….. 49

1.5.1     The market for nanocellulose in 2017…………………………………………………………………….. 49

1.5.2     Nanocellulose global revenues and demand in tons, 2015–2027………………………….. 54

1.5.3     Nanocellulose market by region…………………………………………………………………………….. 56

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 59

2.1    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 61

2.1.1     Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

2.1.2     Economic impact by 2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 61

2.1.3     Current market size for equivalent applications……………………………………………………… 61

2.1.4     Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………… 62

2.1.5     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

2.1.6     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

2.1.7     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………… 62

2.1.8     Regulatory/Government policy push………………………………………………………………………. 62

2.1.9     Market pull……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

2.2    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 63

3    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………… 66

3.1    What is nanocellulose?…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

3.2    Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

3.2.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 70

3.2.1.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

3.2.1.2       Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………….. 72

3.2.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 73

3.2.2.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

3.2.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

3.2.3.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 76

3.3    Synthesis of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 76

3.3.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)……………………………………………………………………………. 76

3.3.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 77

3.3.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 77

3.3.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………… 78

3.3.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………. 79

3.4    Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

3.5    Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81

3.6    Manufacture of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………… 81

3.7    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82

3.7.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 85

3.7.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………… 85

4    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE…………………………….. 86

4.1    Routes to commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………… 86

4.2    Market structure from materials production to end product…………………………………………….. 86

4.3    Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales……………. 89

4.4    Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………. 91

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR NANOCELLULOSE…………………………….. 93

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 95

6.1    Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95

6.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………. 95

6.1.2     American National Standards………………………………………………………………………………… 95

6.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95

6.2    Toxicity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96

6.3    Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 99

8    NANOCELLULOSE APPLICATIONS……………………………………… 100

8.1    High volume, medium volume and low volume nanocellulose applications………………….. 100

9    NANOCELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL).. 102

10 NANOCELLULOSE END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 104

10.1      Production of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………… 104

10.1.1        Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………… 104

10.1.2        Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………… 104

10.1.3        Cellulose nanocrystal production……………………………………………………………………… 106

10.1.4        Production volumes, by region…………………………………………………………………………. 106

10.1.5        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107

10.1.6        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

10.2      Nanocellulose patents & publications………………………………………………………………………. 112

11 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 119

11.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 119

11.2      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 123

11.2.1        Applications by cellulose type………………………………………………………………………….. 123

11.2.2        Applications timeline………………………………………………………………………………………… 124

11.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 125

11.3.1        Biopackaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129

11.3.2        Aerospace and aviation……………………………………………………………………………………. 142

11.3.3        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150

11.3.4        Construction & building……………………………………………………………………………………. 161

12 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………… 172

12.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 172

12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 172

12.2.1        Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174

12.2.2        Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174

12.2.3        Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174

12.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 175

12.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………….. 176

12.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178

12.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 179

13 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 181

13.1      Market drivers for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………. 181

13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184

13.2.1        Turning pulp into textiles………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

13.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 185

13.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………. 185

13.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 187

13.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 188

14 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………….. 189

14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 190

14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191

14.2.1        Drug delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192

14.2.2        Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………. 192

14.2.3        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

14.2.4        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 193

14.2.5        Laterial flow immunosay labels………………………………………………………………………… 194

14.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 194

14.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 198

15 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………….. 200

15.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 200

15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203

15.2.1        Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………………. 204

15.2.2        Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 204

15.2.3        Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………. 205

15.2.4        Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205

15.3      Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 205

15.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 214

16 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 215

16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 215

16.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 215

16.3      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 218

16.3.1        Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 218

16.3.2        Medical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 219

16.3.3        Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 219

16.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 219

17 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 220

17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 220

17.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223

17.2.1        Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………. 224

17.2.2        Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225

17.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 225

17.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas………………………………………… 226

17.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228

17.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 229

18 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 230

18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 230

18.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 234

18.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

18.2.2        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

18.2.3        Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237

18.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 238

18.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration…………………………………………….. 239

18.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 242

18.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 242

19 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 244

19.1      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244

19.1.1        Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245

19.1.2        Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………. 245

19.1.3        Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 245

19.2      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 246

20 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 247

20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 247

20.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 250

20.2.1        Wearable electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 252

20.2.1.1     Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255

20.2.1.2     Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………… 257

20.2.2        Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 257

20.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 257

20.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in printed and flexible electronics…………. 260

20.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 262

20.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 263

21 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 264

21.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 264

21.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 265

21.2.1        Cellulose nanocrystals 3D printing ink……………………………………………………………… 265

21.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 267

21.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing………………………………………… 267

21.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 268

21.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 269

22 OTHER MARKETS……………………………………………………………….. 270

22.1.1        Rubber and tire additives…………………………………………………………………………………. 270

22.1.2        Colourants……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 270

23 NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES…………………………….. 271

23.1      Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)………………………… 271

23.2      Target markets for producers…………………………………………………………………………………… 273

23.3      NANOFIBRILLAR CELLULOSE (NFC) PRODUCERS…………………………………………….. 275 (24 company profiles including products, production capacity, production process, commercial applications and target markets)

23.4      CELLULOSE NANOCRYSTAL (CNC) PRODUCERS……………………………………………… 358 (4 company profiles including products, production capacity, production process, commercial applications and target markets)

23.5      BACTERIAL CELLULOSE (BC) PRODUCERS……………………………………………………….. 371 (5 company profiles including products, production capacity, production process, commercial applications and target markets)

23.6      OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…………………………………… 374 (30 company profiles)

24 MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES…………………… 391 (23 centre profiles)

25 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 404

 

TABLES

Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33

Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 35

Table 3: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 38

Table 4: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 42

Table 5: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43

Table 6: Nanocellulose products in Japan………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

Table 7: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into key markets…. 54

Table 8: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

Table 9: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………….. 70

Table 10: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 72

Table 11: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………….. 75

Table 12: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 76

Table 13: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

Table 14: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

Table 15: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 77

Table 16: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78

Table 17: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 79

Table 18: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 80

Table 19: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………… 82

Table 20: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale…………………………………………………………….. 83

Table 21: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………… 85

Table 22: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 85

Table 23: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………… 86

Table 24: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………… 91

Table 25: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………… 93

Table 26: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………… 96

Table 27: Potential high volume impact of nanocellulose and likelihood of market impact……….. 100

Table 28: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……. 105

Table 29: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned…… 106

Table 30: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 107

Table 31: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers…………………………………….. 110

Table 32: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013…………………………………….. 113

Table 33: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………… 113

Table 34: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013………. 113

Table 35: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………… 115

Table 36: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014……………………………………………………………. 116

Table 37: Main patent assignees for NCC, as of May 2015……………………………………………………… 116

Table 38: Main patent assignees for NFC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 117

Table 39: Main patent assignees for BCC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 117

Table 40: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials……………………….. 122

Table 41: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…. 124

Table 42: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………. 124

Table 43: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………. 124

Table 44: Market assessment for nanocellulose in composites………………………………………………… 125

Table 45: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in composites……………………………… 126

Table 46: Limitations of nanocellulose in the development of nanocomposites………………………… 126

Table 47: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127

Table 48: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………… 128

Table 49: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………….. 134

Table 50: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………… 136

Table 51: Market assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………………………….. 137

Table 52: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137

Table 53: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………… 139

Table 54:Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………… 140

Table 55: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market…………………… 141

Table 56: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142

Table 57: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…. 144

Table 58: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146

Table 59: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation………………………………………….. 147

Table 60: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)… 149

Table 61: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the aerospace market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149

Table 62: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 152

Table 63: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………. 155

Table 64: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector………………………………… 156

Table 65: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry…………… 157

Table 66: Market size for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………….. 157

Table 67: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………… 158

Table 68: Applications and commercilization challenges in the automotive market………………….. 159

Table 69: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the automotive market……………………….. 159

Table 70: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 160

Table 71: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 163

Table 72: Market size for nanocellulose in construction and civil engineering………………………….. 164

Table 73: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.. 164

Table 74: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 166

Table 75: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market…………………………………………….. 167

Table 76: Nanocellulose in polymer composites-Companies and products………………………………. 167

Table 77: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………………….. 172

Table 78: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………… 175

Table 79: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………… 176

Table 80: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)………….. 178

Table 81: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the paper and board market………………. 178

Table 82: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 179

Table 83: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184

Table 84: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles…………………………………….. 186

Table 85: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles……… 186

Table 86: Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles……………………………………………………….. 187

Table 87: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the textiles and apparel market…………. 188

Table 88: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188

Table 89: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…………….. 191

Table 90: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………… 194

Table 91: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 195

Table 92: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………. 196

Table 93: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 197

Table 94: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………. 198

Table 95: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 203

Table 96: Market assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films……………………………………… 207

Table 97: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 207

Table 98: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films…………………… 209

Table 99: Demand for nanocellulose in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)……….. 211

Table 100: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market………….. 213

Table 101: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………….. 214

Table 102: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………….. 216

Table 103: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market……………………………………. 218

Table 104: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels……………………………………………………….. 219

Table 105: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………. 223

Table 106: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226

Table 107: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas………………………………………………. 226

Table 108: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 227

Table 109: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons). 228

Table 110: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market…… 228

Table 111: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration………………………………….. 229

Table 112: Types of filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230

Table 113: CNF membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232

Table 114: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………… 234

Table 115: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239

Table 116: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration……………………………………………………. 239

Table 117: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………… 240

Table 118: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 241

Table 119: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the filtration market………………………….. 242

Table 120: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242

Table 121: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………………….. 244

Table 122: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers………………………………………… 246

Table 123: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………. 248

Table 124: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………………. 250

Table 125: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………. 255

Table 126: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$……………………………………….. 258

Table 127: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 260

Table 128: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector.. 260

Table 129: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in flexible electronics………………… 261

Table 130: Market challenges rating for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 263

Table 131: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 263

Table 132: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267

Table 133: Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing……………………………………………….. 267

Table 134: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………….. 268

Table 135: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 269

Table 136: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,…………………………………… 269

Table 137: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 271

Table 138: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 273

FIGURES

Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet…………………………………………………………………………. 46

Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49

Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 50

Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 50

Figure 6: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 52

Figure 7: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

Figure 8: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 53

Figure 9: Nanocellulose market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………………… 55

Figure 10: Nanocellulose market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………………. 57

Figure 11: Nanocellulose market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………………. 58

Figure 12: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 66

Figure 13: Scale of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 67

Figure 14: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69

Figure 15: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses…………………………………………….. 69

Figure 16: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………… 74

Figure 17: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………….. 84

Figure 18: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer…………………. 86

Figure 19: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales, 2016. 90

Figure 20: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose…………………………………………….. 103

Figure 21: Production volumes of nanocellulose 2017, by region…………………………………………….. 107

Figure 22:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013………………………………………………… 115

Figure 23: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………. 128

Figure 24: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………….. 133

Figure 25: Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………. 140

Figure 26: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 148

Figure 27: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 153

Figure 28: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155

Figure 29: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………….. 158

Figure 30: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons). 166

Figure 31: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 176

Figure 32: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………. 178

Figure 33: Cellulose nanocrystals on fabric create iridescent structural colour…………………………. 185

Figure 34: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons). 197

Figure 35: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 206

Figure 36: Demand for nanocellulose in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2017 (tons)…….. 211

Figure 37: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2017 (tons)……………………… 216

Figure 38: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 224

Figure 39: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 227

Figure 40: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 238

Figure 41: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2017 (tons)………………………. 241

Figure 42: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 251

Figure 43:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 253

Figure 44: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 254

Figure 45: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 255

Figure 46: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 256

Figure 47: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 256

Figure 48: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 257

Figure 49: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 258

Figure 50: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259

Figure 51: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 259

Figure 52: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 280

Figure 53: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 281

Figure 54: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 282

Figure 55: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303

Figure 56: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 316

Figure 57: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 316

Figure 58: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 317

Figure 59: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 320

Figure 60: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 321

Figure 61: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 348

Figure 62: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 353

Figure 63: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:……………………………. 362

Figure 64: NCCTM Process……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 363

Figure 65: Plantrose process……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 369