The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers to 2027

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The global nanocellulose market comprises:

  • Micro/nanofibrillar cellulose, cellulose nanofibers (MFC/NFC/CNF).
  • Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC/CNC) and
  • Bacterial cellulose (BC)

Cellulose nanofibers represent the vast majority of this market (>90%). Most major paper manufacturers, faced with reduced market demand for paper are seeking to exploit the remarkable properties of cellulose nanofibers. The market is exploding in Japan with large paper manufacturers such as Nippon Paper and Oji Holdings establishing multi-ton cellulose nanofiber production facilities. Asahi Kasei, Japan’s leading chemicals manufacturer recently announced plans for cellulose nanofiber production, with trial production starting next year. Facilities have also been established in Europe (mainly Scandanavia), Canada and the United States.

Products are available for commercial trials and will find wider application in packaging and composites over the next few years. Dai Nippon Printing Co. Ltd., Tentok Paper Works, Risho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Daio Paper Corp., KRI Inc. have all recently announced new products and production initiatives.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities
  • Current products.
  • Stage of commercialization for cellulose nanofiber applications by company.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by target markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for cellulose nanofibers including potential revenues, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • In-depth company profiles, include products, capacities, production processes and commmercial activities.

Companies profiled in the report American Process, Inc., Imerys, Innventia AB, Asahi Kasei, Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Daicel, Daiichi Kogyo, Daio Paper, Nippon Paper, Oji Holdings, Sugino Machine, Seiko PMC, StoraEnso and Borregaard.

Companies who have recently bought this report include: Cellutech, Moorim, VTT, Performance Biofilaments, OmyaMyBiomass, International Paper, Kruger, Sappi, Natural FriendKorea Minting and Security Printing Corporation etc.

Revised May 2018 | 390 pages, 138 tables, 61 figures | Table of contents

The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
Print edition.
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
The Global Market for Cellulose Nanofibers
PDF download and print edition.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 30

  • 1.1    Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
    • 1.1.1     Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………….. 36
  • 1.2    Production worldwide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
    • 1.2.1     Production plants and production status………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 1.3    Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
    • 1.3.1     Demand for sustainable materials………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 1.3.2     Enhanced products for paper and board industries……………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.3.3     Unique properties lead to new products…………………………………………………………………. 42
    • 1.3.4     Recent improvements in production and product integration…………………………………. 43
  • 1.4    Market and technical challenges…………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.4.1     Characterization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.4.2     Production……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 1.4.3     Functionalization…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.4.4     Moisture absorption and aggregation…………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.4.5     Scalability……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
    • 1.4.6     Lack of current products…………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
    • 1.4.7     Cost-competitiveness with traditional technology…………………………………………………… 45
  • 1.5    Global cellulose nanofibers market size…………………………………………………………………………. 46
    • 1.5.1     The market for cellulose nanofibers in 2017…………………………………………………………… 46
    • 1.5.2     Nanocellulose global revenues and demand in tons, 2015–2027………………………….. 50
    • 1.5.3     Cellulose nanofiber market by region…………………………………………………………………….. 51

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 54

  • 2.1    MARKET OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………………………. 55
    • 2.1.1     Stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
    • 2.1.2     Economic impact by 2027………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 2.1.3     Current market size for equivalent applications……………………………………………………… 56
    • 2.1.4     Ease of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………… 56
    • 2.1.5     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
    • 2.1.6     Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
    • 2.1.7     Competition from other materials…………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 2.1.8     Regulatory/Government policy push………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 2.1.9     Market pull……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
  • 2.2    MARKET CHALLENGES RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………. 57

3    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………… 60

  • 3.1    What is nanocellulose?…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60
  • 3.2    Types of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
    • 3.2.1     NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 64
      • 3.2.1.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
      • 3.2.1.2       Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………….. 66
    • 3.2.2     NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC)…………………………………………………………………………… 67
      • 3.2.2.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
      • 3.2.2.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 3.2.3     Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
      • 3.2.3.1       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
  • 3.3    Synthesis of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 3.3.1     Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)……………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.3.2     Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.3.3     Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC)………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 3.3.4     Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)………………………………………………………………………………… 75
    • 3.3.5     Bacterial cellulose particles (CNC)…………………………………………………………………………. 75
  • 3.4    Properties of nanocellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • 3.5    Advantages of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77
  • 3.6    Manufacture of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
  • 3.7    Production methods……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
    • 3.7.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 81
    • 3.7.2     Nanocrystalline celluose production methods………………………………………………………… 81

4    CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS MARKET STRUCTURE………………… 82

  • 4.1    Routes to commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………… 82
  • 4.2    Market structure from materials production to end product…………………………………………….. 83
  • 4.3    Volume of industry demand for CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS………………………………………… 85
  • 4.4    Current end users for cellulose NANOFIBERS, by market and company………………………. 87

5    SWOT ANALYSIS FOR CELLULOSE NANOFIBERS………………… 89

6    REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS…………………………………………. 91

  • 6.1    Standards……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
    • 6.1.1     International Standards Organization (ISO)……………………………………………………………. 91
    • 6.1.2     American National Standards………………………………………………………………………………… 91
  • 6.1.3     CSA Group…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • 6.2    Toxicity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • 6.3    Regulation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94

7    REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING………….. 96

8    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER APPLICATIONS…………………………….. 97

  • 8.1    High volume, medium volume and low volume cellulose nanofiber applications………. 97

9    CELLULOSE NANOFIBER TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL)………………………………………………………………………………………… 99

10 CELLULOSE NANOFIBER END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………………. 101

  • 10.1      Production of cellulose nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………. 101
    • 10.1.1        Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 10.1.2        Cellulose nanofiber production………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 10.1.3        Production volumes, by region…………………………………………………………………………. 103
    • 10.1.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
    • 10.1.5        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
  • 10.2      Cellulose nanofibers patents & publications…………………………………………………………….. 108

11 COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………… 115

  • 11.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 115
    • 11.1.1        Growing use of polymer composites………………………………………………………………… 115
    • 11.1.2        Increased need for advanced, protective materials………………………………………….. 116
    • 11.1.3        Improved multi-functional performance over traditional composites-green AND strong        116
    • 11.1.4        Multi-functionality……………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
    • 11.1.5        Growth in the wind energy market……………………………………………………………………. 117
    • 11.1.6        Environmental impact of carbon fibers…………………………………………………………….. 117
    • 11.1.7        Shortcomings of natural fiber composites and glass fiber reinforced composites 118
  • 11.2      APPLICATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 11.2.1        Applications by cellulose type………………………………………………………………………….. 119
    • 11.2.2        Applications timeline………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 11.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 11.3.1        Biopackaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 125
      • 11.3.1.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 125
      • 11.3.1.2     Anti-microbial packaging biofilm market is growing……………………………………… 130
      • 11.3.1.3     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
      • 11.3.1.4     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 133
      • 11.3.1.5     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      • 11.3.1.6     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 139
    • 11.3.2        Aerospace and aviation……………………………………………………………………………………. 139
      • 11.3.2.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 139
      • 11.3.2.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
      • 11.3.2.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 143
      • 11.3.2.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
    • 11.3.3        Automotive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 147
      • 11.3.3.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 147
      • 11.3.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
      • 11.3.3.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 152
      • 11.3.3.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 156
      • 11.3.3.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 11.3.4        Construction & building……………………………………………………………………………………. 159
      • 11.3.4.1     Market drivers and trends……………………………………………………………………………. 159
      • 11.3.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
      • 11.3.4.3     Global market size and opportunity……………………………………………………………… 161
      • 11.3.4.4     Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
      • 11.3.4.5     Product developer profiles…………………………………………………………………………… 165

12 PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………… 169

  • 12.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 12.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 169
    • 12.1.2        Need to develop innovative new products in the paper and board industry……… 169
  • 12.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 12.2.1        Paper packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
    • 12.2.2        Paper coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
    • 12.2.3        Anti-microbials…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
  • 12.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 172
    • 12.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board…………….. 173
  • 12.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
  • 12.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 176

13 TEXTILES……………………………………………………………………………. 178

  • 13.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 178
    • 13.1.1        Growth in the wearable electronics market………………………………………………………. 178
    • 13.1.2        Growth in the market for anti-microbial textiles………………………………………………… 178
    • 13.1.3        Need to improve the properties of cloth or fabric materials………………………………. 179
    • 13.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 180
    • 13.1.5        Need for biodegradable sanitary products……………………………………………………….. 180
  • 13.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 181
  • 13.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 183
    • 13.3.1        Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles………………….. 183
  • 13.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
  • 13.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 185

14 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE………………………………………………….. 186

  • 14.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
    • 14.1.1        Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy………………………………………………………. 187
    • 14.1.2        Shortcomings of chemotherapies…………………………………………………………………….. 187
    • 14.1.3        Biocompatibility of medical implants………………………………………………………………… 187
    • 14.1.4        Anti-biotic resistance………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.1.5        Growth in advanced woundcare market…………………………………………………………… 188
  • 14.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
    • 14.2.1        Drug delivery……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
    • 14.2.2        Medical implants………………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
    • 14.2.3        Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 14.2.4        Wound dressings……………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
    • 14.2.5        Laterial flow immunosay labels………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • 14.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 191
  • 14.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 195

15 COATINGS, FILMS & PAINTS……………………………………………….. 197

  • 15.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
    • 15.1.1        Sustainable coating systems and materials……………………………………………………… 197
    • 15.1.2        Chemical to bio-based……………………………………………………………………………………… 197
    • 15.1.3        Increased demand for abrasion and scratch resistant coatings……………………….. 198
    • 15.1.4        Increased demand for UV-resistant coatings…………………………………………………… 198
    • 15.1.5        Growth in superhydrophobic coatings market………………………………………………….. 199
  • 15.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 200
    • 15.2.1        Abrasion and scratch resistance………………………………………………………………………. 200
    • 15.2.2        Wood coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 15.2.3        Anti-counterfeiting films……………………………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 15.2.4        Gas barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 201
  • 15.3      Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 15.3.1        Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………. 207
      • 15.3.1.1     High viscosity………………………………………………………………………………………………. 207
      • 15.3.1.2     Moisture sorption…………………………………………………………………………………………. 207
      • 15.3.1.3     Durability……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 207
      • 15.3.1.4     Dispersion……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 15.3.1.5     Transparency………………………………………………………………………………………………. 208
      • 15.3.1.6     Production, scalability and cost……………………………………………………………………. 208
  • 15.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 209

16 AEROGELS…………………………………………………………………………. 210

  • 16.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
    • 16.1.1        Energy efficiency……………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
    • 16.1.2        Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials……………………………… 210
  • 16.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 210
  • 16.3      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 212
    • 16.3.1        Thermal insulation……………………………………………………………………………………………. 212
    • 16.3.2        Medical…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 212
    • 16.3.3        Shape memory………………………………………………………………………………………………… 213
  • 16.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 213

17 OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………. 214

  • 17.1      MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS…………………………………………………………………………. 214
    • 17.1.1        Need to reduce operating costs and improve operation efficiency…………………… 214
    • 17.1.2        Increased demands of drilling environments……………………………………………………. 215
    • 17.1.3        Increased exploration in extreme environments………………………………………………. 216
    • 17.1.4        Environmental and regulatory………………………………………………………………………….. 216
  • 17.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 217
    • 17.2.1        Oil and fracking drilling fluids……………………………………………………………………………. 218
    • 17.2.2        Extraction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • 17.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 219
    • 17.3.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas………………………………. 220
  • 17.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 222
  • 17.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 223

18 FILTRATION AND SEPARATION………………………………………….. 224

  • 18.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
    • 18.1.1        Need for improved membrane technology……………………………………………………….. 224
    • 18.1.2        Water shortage and population growth…………………………………………………………….. 225
    • 18.1.3        Need for improved and low cost membrane technology………………………………….. 226
    • 18.1.4        Need for improved groundwater treatment technologies………………………………….. 227
    • 18.1.5        Cost and efficiency…………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
    • 18.1.6        Growth in the air filter market…………………………………………………………………………… 227
    • 18.1.7        Need for environmentally, safe filters……………………………………………………………….. 228
    • 18.1.8        Recyclability of polymer membranes……………………………………………………………….. 228
  • 18.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 228
    • 18.2.1        Water filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
    • 18.2.2        Air filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
    • 18.2.3        Virus filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 231
  • 18.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 232
    • 18.3.1        Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration…………………………………………….. 233
  • 18.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • 18.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 236

19 RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS……………………………………………………… 238

  • 19.1      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
    • 19.1.1        Food………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
    • 19.1.2        Pharmaceuticals………………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
    • 19.1.3        Cosmetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 239
  • 19.2      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 240

20 PRINTED AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS……………………………… 241

  • 20.1      Market drivers and trends………………………………………………………………………………………… 241
    • 20.1.1        Environmental………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 241
    • 20.1.2        Flexible, wearable and paper electronics markets growing……………………………… 241
    • 20.1.3        Need for improved barrier function…………………………………………………………………… 243
  • 20.2      Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
    • 20.2.1        Wearable electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 244
    • 20.2.1.1     Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 247
    • 20.2.1.2     Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………… 249
    • 20.2.2        Conductive inks……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 249
  • 20.3      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 249
    • 20.3.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in printed and flexible electronics.. 252
  • 20.4      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 254
    • 20.4.1.1     Manufacturing……………………………………………………………………………………………… 254
    • 20.4.1.2     Integration……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 254
    • 20.4.1.3     Competing materials……………………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • 20.5      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 255

21 3D PRINTING………………………………………………………………………. 256

  • 21.1      Market drivers………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256
    • 21.1.1        Improved materials at lower cost……………………………………………………………………… 256
    • 21.1.2        Limitations of current thermoplastics……………………………………………………………….. 256
  • 21.2      Global market size and opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 257
    • 21.2.1        Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing………………………………. 257
  • 21.3      Market challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 258
  • 21.4      Product developer profiles……………………………………………………………………………………….. 259

22 NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES…………………………….. 260-340 (24 company profiles)

22.4      OTHER PRODUCERS AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS…………………………………… 341-364 (43 company profiles)

23 MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES…………………… 365-376

24 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 378

TABLES

  • Table 1: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Table 2: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 32
  • Table 3: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 36
  • Table 4: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 39
  • Table 5: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • Table 6: Cellulose nanofiber products in Japan………………………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Table 8: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
  • Table 9: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………….. 65
  • Table 10: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 66
  • Table 6: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)……………………………………………………………. 71
  • Table 12: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 72
  • Table 13: Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Table 14: Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • Table 15: Nanofibrillated cellulose (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Table 16: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
  • Table 17: Cellulose nanocrystals (MFC) preparation methods, resulting materials and applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
  • Table 18: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 76
  • Table 19: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials…………… 78
  • Table 20: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale…………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Table 21: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………… 81
  • Table 22: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 81
  • Table 23: Cellulose nanofiber market structure…………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • Table 24: Current and potential end users for cellulose nanofibers, by market and company……. 87
  • Table 25: SWOT analysis of cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………. 89
  • Table 26: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose……………………………………………………………………… 92
  • Table 27: Potential high volume impact of cellulose nanofiber and likelihood of market impact…. 97
  • Table 28: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……. 101
  • Table 29: Markets and applications for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………….. 103
  • Table 30: Product/price/application matrix of cellulose nanofiber producers…………………………….. 106
  • Table 31: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013…………………………………….. 109
  • Table 32: Nanocellulose patents as of May 2015……………………………………………………………………… 109
  • Table 33: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013………. 110
  • Table 34: Nanocellulose patents by organisation……………………………………………………………………… 111
  • Table 35: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014……………………………………………………………. 112
  • Table 36: Main patent assignees for NCC, as of May 2015……………………………………………………… 113
  • Table 37: Main patent assignees for NFC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 113
  • Table 38: Main patent assignees for BCC, as of May 2015………………………………………………………. 113
  • Table 39: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials……………………….. 119
  • Table 40: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…. 120
  • Table 41: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………. 120
  • Table 42: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………. 121
  • Table 43: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in composites………………………………………. 121
  • Table 44: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in composites……………………. 122
  • Table 45: Limitations of cellulose nanofibers in the development of nanocomposites………………. 122
  • Table 46: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in composites…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
  • Table 47: Demand for cellulose nanofibers the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………….. 124
  • Table 48: Examples of antimicrobial immobilization into cellulose nanofibers………………………….. 130
  • Table 49: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers…………………………………………………… 132
  • Table 50: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging……………………………………. 133
  • Table 51: Application markets, competing materials, NFC advantages and current market size in packaging…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • Table 52: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in biopackaging…………………. 136
  • Table 53:Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)………. 137
  • Table 54: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market………….. 138
  • Table 55: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 139
  • Table 56: Applications in aerospace composites, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…. 141
  • Table 57: Nanomaterials in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
  • Table 58: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation………………………………………….. 144
  • Table 59: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
  • Table 60: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace market……………… 146
  • Table 61: Applications of natural fiber composites in vehicles by manufacturers……………………… 149
  • Table 62: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in the automotive sector…………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Table 63: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive sector………………………. 153
  • Table 64: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry…. 154
  • Table 65: Market size for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive industry………………………………… 154
  • Table 66: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………. 155
  • Table 67: Applications and commercilization challenges for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Table 68: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market……………… 156
  • Table 69: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………… 157
  • Table 70: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 160
  • Table 71: Market size for cellulose nanofibers in construction and civil engineering………………… 161
  • Table 72: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the construction, building protection and exterior coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact.. 162
  • Table 73: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • Table 74: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Table 75: Cellulose nanofibers in polymer composites-Companies and products……………………. 165
  • Table 76: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the paper and board markets……………… 169
  • Table 77: Global packaging market, billions US$……………………………………………………………………… 172
  • Table 78: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in paper and board……………. 173
  • Table 79: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons)… 175
  • Table 80: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market…….. 176
  • Table 81: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 176
  • Table 82: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 181
  • Table 83: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles…………………………… 183
  • Table 84: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of cellulose nanofibers into textiles. 183
  • Table 85: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in textiles……………………………………………… 184
  • Table 86: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the textiles and apparel market.. 185
  • Table 87: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 185
  • Table 88: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…….. 188
  • Table 89: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in the drug formulation and delivery market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………… 191
  • Table 90: Nanotechnology and nanomaterials opportunity in medical implants and devices market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………. 193
  • Table 91: Cellulose nanofibers opportunity in the wound care market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact……………………………………………………………. 194
  • Table 92: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
  • Table 93: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in medical and healthcare applications…….. 195
  • Table 94: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 200
  • Table 95: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films……………………………. 203
  • Table 96: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in coatings and films………………………………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Table 97: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in coatings and films…………. 205
  • Table 98: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons). 206
  • Table 99: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the coatings and films market….. 208
  • Table 100: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers products in paper coatings and non-packaging coating products, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………… 209
  • Table 101: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………… 211
  • Table 102: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the aerogels market………………………….. 212
  • Table 103: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in aerogels……………………………………………… 213
  • Table 104: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the oil market……………………………………. 217
  • Table 105: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 220
  • Table 106: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in oil and gas……………………………………… 220
  • Table 107: Cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact…………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • Table 108: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
  • Table 109: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
  • Table 110: Cellulose nanofibers product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………….. 223
  • Table 111: Types of filtration…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
  • Table 112: CNF membranes…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226
  • Table 113: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………… 228
  • Table 114: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in filtration………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Table 115: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in filtration………………………………………….. 233
  • Table 116: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration industry……. 234
  • Table 117: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………….. 235
  • Table 118: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market………………… 236
  • Table 119: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………………………………………….. 237
  • Table 120: Cellulose nanofibers applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market…………… 238
  • Table 121: Commercial activity in cellulose nanofiber rheology modifiers………………………………… 240
  • Table 122: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………. 242
  • Table 123: Cellulose nanofiber applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………. 243
  • Table 124: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………. 247
  • Table 125: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$……………………………………….. 250
  • Table 126: Application markets, competing materials, Cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 252
  • Table 127: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in the flexible and printed electronics sector…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 252
  • Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in flexible electronics………. 253
  • Table 129: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the printed and flexible electronics market…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
  • Table 130: Companies developing cellulose nanofiber products in paper electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 255
  • Table 131: Application markets, competing materials, cellulose nanofibers advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 257
  • Table 132: Market assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing……………………………………… 257
  • Table 133: Market opportunity assessment for cellulose nanofibers in 3D printing…………………… 258
  • Table 134: Market challenges rating for cellulose nanofibers in the 3D printing market……………. 259
  • Table 135: Companies developing cellulose nanofibers 3D printing products,…………………………. 259
  • Table 136: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 260
  • Table 137: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 261

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
  • Figure 2: Cellulose nanofiber transparent sheet…………………………………………………………………………. 42
  • Figure 3: CNF transparent sheet………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
  • Figure 4: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 46
  • Figure 5: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 47
  • Figure 6: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • Figure 7: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Figure 8: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 49
  • Figure 9: Cellulose nanofibers market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………. 51
  • Figure 10: Cellulose nanofiber market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………. 52
  • Figure 11: Cellulose nanofiber market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………. 53
  • Figure 12: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 60
  • Figure 13: Scale of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Figure 14: Types of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
  • Figure 15: Relationship between different kinds of nanocelluloses…………………………………………….. 63
  • Figure 16: CNF gel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • Figure 17: TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals………………………………………………………………………… 67
  • Figure 18: Extracting CNC from trees…………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Figure 19: An iridescent biomimetic cellulose multilayer film remains after water that contains cellulose nanocrystals evaporates………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • Figure 20: CNC slurry…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • Figure 21: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Figure 22: Schematic of typical commercialization route for cellulose nanofiber producer…………. 82
  • Figure 23: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by cellulose nanofiber producer sales, 2016……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
  • Figure 24: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cellulose nanofibers…………………………………… 100
  • Figure 25: Production volumes of cellulose nanofibers 2017, by region…………………………………… 103
  • Figure 26:  Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013………………………………………………… 111
  • Figure 27: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)……….. 124
  • Figure 28: Example process for producing NFC packaging film……………………………………………….. 129
  • Figure 29: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)…….. 137
  • Figure 30: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerospace and aviaton market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 145
  • Figure 31: Nanomaterials-based automotive components………………………………………………………… 150
  • Figure 32: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • Figure 33: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the automotive market, 2015-2027 (tons)………… 155
  • Figure 34: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the construction and building market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
  • Figure 35: Paper and board global demand……………………………………………………………………………… 173
  • Figure 36: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons).. 175
  • Figure 37: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
  • Figure 38: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 202
  • Figure 39: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Figure 40: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………. 211
  • Figure 41: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 218
  • Figure 42: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 221
  • Figure 43: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Figure 44: Demand for cellulose nanofibers in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………… 235
  • Figure 45: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 244
  • Figure 46:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 245
  • Figure 47: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………… 246
  • Figure 48: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 247
  • Figure 49: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 248
  • Figure 50: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………… 248
  • Figure 51: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 249
  • Figure 52: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 250
  • Figure 53: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251
  • Figure 54: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 251
  • Figure 55: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Figure 56: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 267
  • Figure 57: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 268
  • Figure 58: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 290
  • Figure 59: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 303
  • Figure 60: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 303
  • Figure 61: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 304
  • Figure 62: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 307
  • Figure 63: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 308
  • Figure 64: Silk nanofiber (right) and cocoon of raw material…………………………………………………….. 321
  • Figure 65: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 332
  • Figure 66: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 336