The Global Market for Nanomaterials 2010-2028

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Nanomaterials  are increasingly becoming part of our daily lives and are already heavily used in products such as sunscreens (titanium dioxide/zinc oxide nanoparticles), sporting goods (carbon nanotubes, graphene etc.), automotive composites (nanotubes, cellulose nanofibers etc.) and high-definition TVs (quantum dots). There use is only going to increase due to continued industry demand for nanomaterials for current and next generation batteries, biomedical imaging and flexible electronics.

Their novel properties, that are not apparent in larger forms of the same material, has led to their desirability and exploitation in a wide range of applications. Nanomaterials can be defined as substances that are intentionally produced, manufactured or engineered to have specific properties and one or more dimensions typically between 1 and 100 nanometres. Most nanomaterials are produced in multi-ton volumes in varying sizes, shapes, and also in surface coatings. Nanomaterials cover a range of materials inorganic metal and metal oxide nanomaterials, carbon-based nanomaterials and polymeric particulate materials in a variety of forms.

Markets nanomaterials are currently impacting include healthcare, sporting goods, cosmetics and personal care, automotive, food and beverage, home and garden, coatings in numerous sectors, consumer electronics and computing. Paints and coatings cross-apply to numerous consumer markets from aerospace and automotive to construction and hygiene. They offer a range of functionalities that are desirable in a number of sectors such as anti-bacterialism, anti-corrosion, easy-clean, thermal barrier, protective and UV-absorbent and combinations thereof.

The report offers:

  • In-depth analysis of the global market for nanomaterials, producers, and products.
  • Analysis of the following nanomaterials:
    • Aluminium oxide nanoparticles
    • Antimony tin oxide nanoparticles
    • Bismuth oxide nanoparticles
    • Carbon nanotubes
    • Cerium oxide nanoparticles
    • Cobalt oxide nanoparticles
    • Copper oxide nanoparticles
    • Dendrimers
    • Fullerenes
    • Gold nanoparticles
    • Graphene (Graphene oxide; nanoplatelets from liquid phase-exfoliation and intercalation exfoliation; CVD graphene film) .
    • Iron oxide nanoparticles
    • Magnesium oxide nanoparticles
    • Manganese oxide nanoparticles
    • Nanocellulose (Cellulose nanofibers and cellulose nanocrystals)
    • Nanoclays
    • Nanodiamondss
    • Nanofibers
    • Nanosilver
    • Nanowires
    • Nickel nanoparticles
    • Quantum dots
    • Silicon oxide nanoparticles
    • Titanium dioxide nanoparticles
    • Zinc oxide nanoparticles
    • Zirconium oxide nanoparticles
    • Nanoprecipitated calcium carbonate
    • Graphene quantum dots/Carbon quantum dots
    • Hydroxypatite nanoparticles
    • Palladium nanoparticles
    • Yttrium oxide nanoparticles
    • Other 2D materials beyond graphene.
  • Analysis of global nanomaterials regulations.
  • Global nanomaterials funding and government policies.
  • Nanomaterials patenting.
  • Assessment of nanomaterials market including production volumes, competitive landscape, commercial prospects, applications, demand by market and region, commercialization timelines, prices and producer profiles.
  • Analysis of the following
  • Examples of successful markets and products.
  • Analysis of global trends, including historical data from 2010, and projections to 2027.
  • Exploration of nanomaterials market structures and value chains.
  • Main application and product opportunities in nanotechnology.
  • Profiles of over 750 nanomaterials producers.

Content: 485 pages, 200 tables, 190 figures | Published: May 2018 | Table of contents

 

The Global Market for Nanomaterials
The Global Market for Nanomaterials
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The Global Market for Nanomaterials
The Global Market for Nanomaterials
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 34

  • 1.1    NANOMATERIALS MARKET RATING SYSTEM…………………………………………………………… 35
    • 1.1.1     Addressable market size………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
    • 1.1.2     Competitive landscape…………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
    • 1.1.3     IP landscape………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
    • 1.1.4     Commercial prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………. 36

2    INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………. 36

  • 2.1    Aims and objectives of the study……………………………………………………………………………………. 36
  • 2.2    Market definition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
    • 2.2.1     Properties of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • 2.3    Categorization………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

3    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 39

4    NANOMATERIALS REGULATIONS………………………………………… 43

  • 4.1    Europe……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
    • 4.1.1     REACH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
    • 4.1.2     Biocidal Products Regulation…………………………………………………………………………………. 44
    • 4.1.3     National nanomaterials registers……………………………………………………………………………. 45
    • 4.1.4     Cosmetics regulation……………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
    • 4.1.5     Food safety…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 4.1.6     Nanomaterials regulations and rulings 2017-2018…………………………………………………. 47
  • 4.2    United States………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48
    • 4.2.1     Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)……………………………………………………………………. 48
    • 4.2.2     Nanomaterials regulations and rulings 2017-2018…………………………………………………. 49
  • 4.3    Asia………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
    • 4.3.1     Japan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
    • 4.3.2     South Korea…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
    • 4.3.3     Taiwan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 4.3.4     Australia…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
    • 4.3.5     Nanomaterials regulations and rulings 2017-2018…………………………………………………. 51

5    GLOBAL FUNDING AND POLICY…………………………………………… 52

  • 5.1    United States………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
    • 5.1.1     National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)……………………………………………………………….. 52
  • 5.2    Japan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • 5.2.1     Science and technology basic plans………………………………………………………………………. 53
      • 5.2.1.1       Strategic Innovation Promotion Program……………………………………………………….. 53
      • 5.2.1.2       Science and Technology Basic Plan……………………………………………………………… 54
      • 5.2.1.3       5th Science and Technology Basic Plan (FY2016-2020)………………………………. 55
    • 5.2.2     Government bodies………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
      • 5.2.2.1       Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)……… 55
      • 5.2.2.2       Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI)…………………………………………… 55
    • 5.2.3     Research centres and platforms…………………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • 5.3    China……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
    • 5.3.1     Graphene funding and development………………………………………………………………………. 56
    • 5.3.2     Future graphene strategy……………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 5.3.3     13th Five-Year Plan……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
  • 5.4    South Korea……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
    • 5.4.1     Nanotechnology funding in South Korea………………………………………………………………… 60
    • 5.4.2     Graphene funding………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • 5.5    Taiwan……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61
    • 5.5.1     National Nanotechnology Program Phase 1…………………………………………………………… 61
    • 5.5.2     Phase 2………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
  • 5.6    Germany………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    • 5.6.1     Nanotechnology Action Plan…………………………………………………………………………. 63
    • 5.6.2     Networks………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
  • 5.7    European Union……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
    • 5.7.1     Horizon 2020………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
    • 5.7.2     Graphene Flagship…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65

6    PATENTING………………………………………………………………………….. 65

7    THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOMATERIALS……………………… 68

  • 7.1    ALUMINIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………………………………… 68
    • 7.1.1     Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
    • 7.1.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………… 68
    • 7.1.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
    • 7.1.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
    • 7.1.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
    • 7.1.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………………………………………….. 73
    • 7.1.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 7.1.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
    • 7.1.9     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
    • 7.1.10        Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78
  • 7.2    ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………………………… 82
    • 7.2.1     Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
    • 7.2.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………… 82
    • 7.2.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
    • 7.2.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
    • 7.2.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85
    • 7.2.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………………………………………….. 86
    • 7.2.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………… 87
    • 7.2.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
    • 7.2.9     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
    • 7.2.10        Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
  • 7.3    BISMUTH OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………. 92
    • 7.3.1     Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 92
    • 7.3.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………… 93
    • 7.3.3     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
    • 7.3.4     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
    • 7.3.5     Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 95
    • 7.3.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)………………………………………………………………………….. 97
    • 7.3.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………… 98
    • 7.3.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
    • 7.3.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 7.3.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
  • 7.4    CARBON NANOTUBES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
    • 7.4.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
    • 7.4.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 104
    • 7.4.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105
      • 7.4.3.1       Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT)………………………………………………….. 107
    • 7.4.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 108
    • 7.4.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 110
    • 7.4.6     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
      • 7.4.6.1       MWNTs……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
      • 7.4.6.2       SWNTs………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
    • 7.4.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 115
      • 7.4.7.1       MWNTs……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
      • 7.4.7.2       SWNTs………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
    • 7.4.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
    • 7.4.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
    • 7.4.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 7.5    CERIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………. 130
    • 7.5.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
    • 7.5.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 130
    • 7.5.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 7.5.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
    • 7.5.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 7.5.6     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
    • 7.5.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 7.5.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
    • 7.5.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
    • 7.5.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • 7.6    COBALT OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………. 140
    • 7.6.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 140
    • 7.6.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 141
    • 7.6.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
    • 7.6.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
    • 7.6.5     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
    • 7.6.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 144
    • 7.6.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 144
    • 7.6.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
    • 7.6.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
    • 7.6.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
  • 7.7    COPPER OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………………………………… 148
    • 7.7.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
    • 7.7.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 149
    • 7.7.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 7.7.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 150
    • 7.7.5     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
    • 7.7.6     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 153
    • 7.7.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 154
    • 7.7.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 7.7.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
    • 7.7.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • 7.8    DENDRIMERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 7.8.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
    • 7.8.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 159
    • 7.8.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 160
      • 7.8.3.1       Types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
    • 7.8.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
    • 7.8.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 164
    • 7.8.6     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
    • 7.8.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 167
    • 7.8.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
    • 7.8.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
    • 7.8.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170
  • 7.9    FULLERENES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 171
    • 7.9.1     Market prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
    • 7.9.2     Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………………. 172
    • 7.9.3     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 7.9.4     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 7.9.5     Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………….. 174
    • 7.9.6     Demand by market……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
    • 7.9.7     Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………. 176
    • 7.9.8     Demand by region………………………………………………………………………………………………… 177
    • 7.9.9     Prices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
    • 7.9.10        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • 7.10      GOLD NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
    • 7.10.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
    • 7.10.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 183
    • 7.10.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
    • 7.10.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 184
    • 7.10.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 185
    • 7.10.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 186
    • 7.10.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 188
    • 7.10.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 189
    • 7.10.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191
    • 7.10.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
  • 7.11      GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
    • 7.11.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
    • 7.11.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 195
    • 7.11.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
    • 7.11.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 197
    • 7.11.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 201
    • 7.11.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
    • 7.11.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 204
    • 7.11.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 206
    • 7.11.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
    • 7.11.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • 7.12      IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………………………………….. 222
    • 7.12.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 222
    • 7.12.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 223
    • 7.12.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
    • 7.12.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
    • 7.12.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 226
    • 7.12.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 227
    • 7.12.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 228
    • 7.12.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 230
    • 7.12.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 232
    • 7.12.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • 7.13      MAGNESIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………………………… 235
    • 7.13.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 235
    • 7.13.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 235
    • 7.13.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
    • 7.13.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
    • 7.13.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 237
    • 7.13.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
    • 7.13.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 240
    • 7.13.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 241
    • 7.13.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 242
    • 7.13.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
  • 7.14      MANGANESE OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………….. 245
    • 7.14.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 245
    • 7.14.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 245
    • 7.14.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
    • 7.14.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 246
    • 7.14.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 247
    • 7.14.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
    • 7.14.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 249
    • 7.14.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 250
    • 7.14.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 251
    • 7.14.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 252
  • 7.15      NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 253
    • 7.15.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
    • 7.15.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 254
    • 7.15.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
      • 7.15.3.1     Cellulose nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
      • 7.15.3.2     Cellulose nanocrystals…………………………………………………………………………………. 258
    • 7.15.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 258
    • 7.15.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 262
    • 7.15.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 263
    • 7.15.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 264
    • 7.15.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 266
    • 7.15.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 269
    • 7.15.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
      • 7.15.10.1       Cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………… 270
      • 7.15.10.2       Cellulose nanocrystals…………………………………………………………………………….. 271
  • 7.16      NANOCLAYS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 277
    • 7.16.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 277
    • 7.16.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 278
    • 7.16.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 278
    • 7.16.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 281
    • 7.16.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 282
    • 7.16.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 283
    • 7.16.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 285
    • 7.16.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 286
    • 7.16.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 288
    • 7.16.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 288
  • 7.17      NANODIAMONDS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 292
    • 7.17.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 292
    • 7.17.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 293
    • 7.17.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 293
    • 7.17.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295
    • 7.17.5        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 297
    • 7.17.6        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 299
    • 7.17.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 299
    • 7.17.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 301
    • 7.17.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 301
    • 7.17.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 302
  • 7.18      NANOFIBERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
    • 7.18.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 303
    • 7.18.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 304
    • 7.18.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 304
    • 7.18.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 305
    • 7.18.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 306
    • 7.18.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 306
    • 7.18.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 307
    • 7.18.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
    • 7.18.9        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 310
  • 7.19      NANOSILVER………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 314
    • 7.19.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 314
    • 7.19.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 315
    • 7.19.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316
    • 7.19.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 316
    • 7.19.5        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 318
    • 7.19.6        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 320
    • 7.19.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 321
    • 7.19.8        Demand, by region…………………………………………………………………………………………… 322
    • 7.19.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323
    • 7.19.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 324
  • 7.20      NANOWIRES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 326
    • 7.20.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 326
    • 7.20.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 327
    • 7.20.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
    • 7.20.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
    • 7.20.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 329
    • 7.20.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 330
    • 7.20.7        Demand, by region…………………………………………………………………………………………… 331
    • 7.20.8        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
    • 7.20.9        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 332
  • 7.21      NICKEL NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………………… 335
    • 7.21.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 335
    • 7.21.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 336
    • 7.21.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 337
    • 7.21.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 337
    • 7.21.5        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 337
    • 7.21.6        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 338
    • 7.21.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 338
    • 7.21.8        Demand, by region…………………………………………………………………………………………… 339
    • 7.21.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 341
    • 7.21.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 341
  • 7.22      QUANTUM DOTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
    • 7.22.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 342
    • 7.22.2        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 343
      • 7.22.2.1     Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide and other materials………………………….. 346
      • 7.22.2.2     Cadmium free quantum dots……………………………………………………………………….. 346
    • 7.22.3        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 346
    • 7.22.4        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 349
    • 7.22.5        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 350
    • 7.22.6        Demand, 2010-2028………………………………………………………………………………………… 352
    • 7.22.7        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 353
    • 7.22.8        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 355
    • 7.22.9        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 355
  • 7.23      SILICON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………….. 359
    • 7.23.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 359
    • 7.23.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 360
    • 7.23.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
    • 7.23.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 362
    • 7.23.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 362
    • 7.23.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 363
    • 7.23.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 365
    • 7.23.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 366
    • 7.23.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 368
    • 7.23.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 368
  • 7.24      TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………………………….. 372
    • 7.24.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 372
    • 7.24.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 373
    • 7.24.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 374
      • 7.24.3.1     Photocatalytic………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
      • 7.24.3.2     UV-filter……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 375
    • 7.24.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 375
    • 7.24.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 376
    • 7.24.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 377
    • 7.24.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 379
    • 7.24.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 380
    • 7.24.9        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 382
  • 7.25      ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………………… 385
    • 7.25.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 385
    • 7.25.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 386
    • 7.25.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 387
    • 7.25.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 388
    • 7.25.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 390
    • 7.25.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 390
    • 7.25.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 392
    • 7.25.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 393
    • 7.25.9        Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 395
  • 7.26      ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES………………………………………………………………….. 400
    • 7.26.1        Market prospects……………………………………………………………………………………………… 400
    • 7.26.2        Market summary and nanomaterials analysis………………………………………………….. 400
    • 7.26.3        Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 401
    • 7.26.4        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 402
    • 7.26.5        Technology readiness level (TRL)……………………………………………………………………. 403
    • 7.26.6        Demand by market…………………………………………………………………………………………… 404
    • 7.26.7        Demand in tons, 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………….. 406
    • 7.26.8        Demand by region……………………………………………………………………………………………. 408
    • 7.26.9        Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
    • 7.26.10      Producers………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 409
  • 7.27      OTHER NANOMATERIALS……………………………………………………………………………………… 412
    • 7.27.1        NANOPRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE…………………………………………….. 412
      • 7.27.1.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 412
      • 7.27.1.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 413
      • 7.27.1.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 414
    • 7.27.2        GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………. 414
      • 7.27.2.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 415
      • 7.27.2.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 417
      • 7.27.2.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
    • 7.27.3        HYDROXYAPATITE NANOPARTICLES…………………………………………………………. 419
      • 7.27.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 419
      • 7.27.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 419
      • 7.27.3.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 420
    • 7.27.4        PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………………… 420
      • 7.27.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 420
      • 7.27.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
      • 7.27.4.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 421
    • 7.27.5        YTTRIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES……………………………………………………………… 421
      • 7.27.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 421
      • 7.27.5.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
      • 7.27.5.3     Producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 422
    • 7.27.6        CARBON ONIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 422
      • 7.27.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 423
      • 7.27.6.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 424
    • 7.27.7        CARBON NANOHORNS…………………………………………………………………………………. 424
    • 7.27.8        BORON NITRIDE NANOTUBES (BNNTs)………………………………………………………. 425
    • 7.28      OTHER 2D MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………………….. 426
    • 7.28.1        PHOSPHORENE……………………………………………………………………………………………… 426
      • 7.28.1.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 427
      • 7.28.1.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 428
      • 7.28.1.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 431
    • 7.28.2        GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………. 432
      • 7.28.2.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 432
      • 7.28.2.2     Synthesis……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 433
      • 7.28.2.3     C2N………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 433
      • 7.28.2.4     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 434
      • 7.28.2.5     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 434
    • 7.28.3        GERMANENE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 435
      • 7.28.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 436
      • 7.28.3.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 436
      • 7.28.3.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 436
    • 7.28.4        GRAPHDIYNE…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 437
      • 7.28.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 438
      • 7.28.4.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 438
      • 7.28.4.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 439
    • 7.28.5        GRAPHANE…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440
      • 7.28.5.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 441
      • 7.28.5.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 441
      • 7.28.5.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 441
    • 7.28.6        HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE……………………………………………………………………… 442
      • 7.28.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 443
      • 7.28.6.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 443
      • 7.28.6.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 444
    • 7.28.7        MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2)……………………………………………………………….. 445
      • 7.28.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 446
      • 7.28.7.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 447
      • 7.28.7.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 448
    • 7.28.8        RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2)……………………………. 449
      • 7.28.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 450
      • 7.28.8.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 450
      • 7.28.8.3     Market opportunity assessment…………………………………………………………………… 450
    • 7.28.9        SILICENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 450
      • 7.28.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 451
      • 7.28.9.2     Applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 452
      • 7.28.10      Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………………….. 453
    • 7.28.11      STANENE/TINENE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 454
      • 7.28.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 455
      • 7.28.11.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 455
      • 7.28.11.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………….. 456
    • 7.28.12      TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE……………………………………………………………………………….. 456
      • 7.28.12.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 457
      • 7.28.12.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 457
      • 7.28.12.3       Market opportunity assessment……………………………………………………………….. 457
    • 7.28.13      ANTIMONENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 458
      • 7.28.13.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 458
      • 7.28.13.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 458
    • 7.28.14      DIAMENE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 459
      • 7.28.14.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 459
      • 7.28.14.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 459
    • 7.28.15      INDIUM SELENIDE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 459
      • 7.28.15.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 459
      • 7.28.15.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 460

8    REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 461

TABLES

  • Table 1: Categorization of nanomaterials……………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • Table 2: The Global market for nanomaterials in 2017 in tons, market characteristics and growth prospects………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
  • Table 3: Demand for nanomaterials (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………………………. 41
  • Table 4: National nanomaterials registries in Europe…………………………………………………………………. 45
  • Table 5: Nanomaterials regulations and rulings in Europe 2017-2018……………………………………….. 47
  • Table 6: Nanomaterials regulations and rulings in the United States 2017-2018……………………….. 49
  • Table 7: Nanomaterials regulatory bodies in Australia……………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Table 8: Nanomaterials regulations and rulings in Asia-Pacific 2017-2018………………………………… 51
  • Table 9: Top ten countries based on number of nanotechnology patents in USPTO…………………. 66
  • Table 10: Nanomaterials scorecard for aluminium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………. 68
  • Table 11: Market summary for aluminium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • Table 12: Markets, benefits and applications of aluminium oxide nanoparticles…………………………. 70
  • Table 13: Demand of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028. Production volumes are in metric tons unless stated otherwise……………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • Table 14: Prices of aluminium oxide nanoparticles…………………………………………………………………….. 78
  • Table 15: Aluminium oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………… 78
  • Table 16: Nanomaterials scorecard for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles…………………………………… 82
  • Table 17: Market summary for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
  • Table 18: Markets, benefits and applications of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles………………………. 83
  • Table 19: Demand for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………… 87
  • Table 20: Prices of antimony tin oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 21: Antimony tin oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………….. 90
  • Table 22: Nanomaterials scorecard for bismuth oxide nanoparticles………………………………………….. 92
  • Table 23: Market summary for bismuth oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93
  • Table 24: Markets, benefits and applications of aluminium oxide nanoparticles…………………………. 94
  • Table 25: Demand for bismuth oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………. 98
  • Table 26: Prices of bismuth oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………………. 101
  • Table 27: Bismuth oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………….. 101
  • Table 28: Nanomaterials scorecard for carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………….. 103
  • Table 29: Market summary for carbon nanotubes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 104
  • Table 30: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials…………………………………………………………. 106
  • Table 31: Properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………….. 106
  • Table 32: Markets, benefits and applications of Carbon Nanotubes…………………………………………. 108
  • Table 33: SWNT producer’s production capacities 2017………………………………………………………….. 116
  • Table 34: Demand for carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………………….. 116
  • Table 35: Prices of carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • Table 36: Example SWNT prices……………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • Table 37: Annual production capacity of MWNT producers………………………………………………………. 122
  • Table 38: SWNT producers production capacities……………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Table 39: Carbon nanotubes producers……………………………………………………………………………………. 123
  • Table 40: Nanomaterials scorecard for cerium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………….. 130
  • Table 41: Market summary for cerium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 130
  • Table 42: Markets, benefits and applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles…………………………….. 131
  • Table 43: Demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………. 135
  • Table 44: Prices of cerium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Table 45: Cerium oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Table 46: Nanomaterials scorecard for cobalt oxide nanoparticles…………………………………………… 140
  • Table 47: Market summary for cobalt oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
  • Table 48: Markets, benefits and applications of cobalt oxide nanoparticles……………………………… 142
  • Table 49: Demand for cobalt oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………….. 144
  • Table 50: Prices of cobalt oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………………….. 147
  • Table 51: Cobalt oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………………………………………………. 147
  • Table 52: Nanomaterials scorecard for copper oxide nanoparticles…………………………………………. 149
  • Table 53: Market summary for copper oxide nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
  • Table 54: Markets, benefits and applications of copper oxide nanoparticles…………………………….. 150
  • Table 55: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………. 154
  • Table 56: Example prices of copper oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………….. 157
  • Table 57: Copper oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………………… 158
  • Table 58: Nanomaterials scorecard for dendrimers………………………………………………………………….. 159
  • Table 59: Market summary for dendrimer -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 159
  • Table 60: Types of dendrimer…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
  • Table 61: Markets, benefits and applications of dendrimers…………………………………………………….. 163
  • Table 62: Dendrimer products………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
  • Table 63: Demand for dendrimers (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………….. 167
  • Table 64: Example prices of dendrimers…………………………………………………………………………………… 170
  • Table 65: Dendrimers producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 170
  • Table 66: Nanomaterials scorecard for fullerenes…………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • Table 67: Market summary for fullerenes-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 172
  • Table 68: Markets, benefits and applications of fullerenes……………………………………………………….. 173
  • Table 69: Demadn for fullerenes (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………. 176
  • Table 70: Example prices of fullerenes…………………………………………………………………………………….. 179
  • Table 71: Fullerene producers………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • Table 72: Nanomaterials scorecard for gold nanoparticles……………………………………………………….. 182
  • Table 73: Market summary for gold nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 183
  • Table 74: Markets, benefits and applications of gold nanoparticles………………………………………….. 184
  • Table 75: Demand for gold nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………. 188
  • Table 76: Example prices of gold nanoparticles……………………………………………………………………….. 191
  • Table 77: Gold nanoparticle producers…………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
  • Table 78: Nanomaterials scorecard for graphene…………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • Table 79: Market summary for graphene-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 195
  • Table 80: Properties of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
  • Table 81: Markets, benefits and applications of graphene……………………………………………………….. 198
  • Table 82: Consumer products incorporating graphene…………………………………………………………….. 201
  • Table 83: Demand for graphene, 2010-2028 in tons/year. Base year for projections is 2015…… 205
  • Table 84: Graphene types and cost per kg……………………………………………………………………………….. 208
  • Table 85: Graphene producers and production capacity (Current and projected), prices and target markets……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 209
  • Table 86: Graphene producers…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • Table 87: Nanomaterials scorecard for iron oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………. 223
  • Table 88: Market summary for iron oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 223
  • Table 89: Markets, benefits and applications of iron oxide nanoparticles…………………………………. 225
  • Table 90: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………… 229
  • Table 91: Example prices of iron oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………. 232
  • Table 92: Iron oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………………… 232
  • Table 93: Nanomaterials scorecard for magnesium oxide nanoparticles………………………………….. 235
  • Table 94: Market summary for magnesium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………….. 236
  • Table 95: Markets, benefits and applications of magnesium oxide nanoparticles…………………….. 237
  • Table 96: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………. 240
  • Table 97: Example prices of magnesium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………….. 242
  • Table 98: Magnesium oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………………………………………. 243
  • Table 99: Nanomaterials scorecard for manganese oxide nanoparticles………………………………….. 245
  • Table 100: Market summary for manganese oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
  • Table 101: Markets, benefits and applications of manganese oxide nanoparticles…………………… 246
  • Table 102: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028…………………………….. 249
  • Table 103: Example prices of manganese oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………… 251
  • Table 104: Manganese oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………….. 252
  • Table 105: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanocellulose……………………………………………………………. 253
  • Table 106: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 254
  • Table 107: Nanocellulose properties………………………………………………………………………………………… 256
  • Table 108: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………….. 257
  • Table 109: Markets and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………… 259
  • Table 110: Demand for nanocellulose (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………………………. 264
  • Table 111: Product/price/application matrix of nanocellulose producers………………………………….. 269
  • Table 112: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned…. 270
  • Table 113: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned…. 272
  • Table 114: Nanocellulose producers………………………………………………………………………………………… 272
  • Table 115: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanoclays………………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Table 116: Market summary for nanoclays -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 278
  • Table 117: Markets, benefits and applications of nanoclays…………………………………………………….. 282
  • Table 118: Demand for nanoclays (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………….. 285
  • Table 119: Example prices of nanoclays………………………………………………………………………………….. 288
  • Table 120: Main nanoclays producers, products and target markets……………………………………….. 288
  • Table 121: Nanoclay producers………………………………………………………………………………………………… 289
  • Table 122: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanodiamonds…………………………………………………………… 292
  • Table 123: Markets, benefits and applications of nanodiamonds……………………………………………… 295
  • Table 124: Demand for nanodiamonds (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………….. 299
  • Table 125: Example prices of nanodiamonds…………………………………………………………………………… 301
  • Table 126: Nanodiamonds producers……………………………………………………………………………………….. 302
  • Table 127: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanofibers…………………………………………………………………. 303
  • Table 128: Market summary for nanofibers- Selling grade particle diameter, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………. 304
  • Table 129: Markets and applications of nanofibers…………………………………………………………………… 305
  • Table 130: Markets for nanofiber air and liquid filtration……………………………………………………………. 306
  • Table 131: Demand for nanofibers (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………………………. 307
  • Table 132: Nanofibers producers……………………………………………………………………………………………… 310
  • Table 133: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanosilver………………………………………………………………….. 315
  • Table 134: Market summary for nanosilver-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications. 315
  • Table 135: Markets, benefits and applications of nanosilver…………………………………………………….. 317
  • Table 136: Demand for nanosilver (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………………………. 321
  • Table 137: Example prices of nanosilver………………………………………………………………………………….. 324
  • Table 138: Nanosilver producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 324
  • Table 139: Nanomaterials scorecard for nanowires………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Table 140: Market summary for nanowires-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Table 141: Markets, benefits and applications of nanowires…………………………………………………….. 328
  • Table 142: Example prices of nanowires………………………………………………………………………………….. 332
  • Table 143: Nanowires producers………………………………………………………………………………………………. 333
  • Table 144: Nanomaterials scorecard for nickel nanoparticles…………………………………………………… 335
  • Table 145: Market summary for nickel nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 336
  • Table 146: Markets, benefits and applications of nickel nanoparticles……………………………………… 337
  • Table 147: Demand for nickel nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………….. 338
  • Table 148: Example prices of nickel nanoparticles…………………………………………………………………… 341
  • Table 149: Nickel nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………………………….. 341
  • Table 150: Nanomaterials scorecard for quantum dots…………………………………………………………….. 343
  • Table 151: Markets, benefits and applications of quantum dots……………………………………………….. 346
  • Table 152: Total QD revenues 2013-2028 ($M), conservative and optimistic estimates………….. 352
  • Table 153: Example prices of quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………….. 355
  • Table 154: Production of quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………. 355
  • Table 155: Quantum dot producers………………………………………………………………………………………….. 356
  • Table 156: Nanomaterials scorecard for silicon oxide nanoparticles………………………………………… 360
  • Table 157: Market summary for silicon oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 360
  • Table 158: Markets, benefits and applications of silicon oxide nanoparticles…………………………… 362
  • Table 159: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………… 365
  • Table 160: Example prices of silicon oxide nanoparticles…………………………………………………………. 368
  • Table 161: Silicon oxide nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………….. 368
  • Table 162: Nanomaterials scorecard for titanium dioxide nanoparticles…………………………………… 373
  • Table 163: Market summary for titanium dioxide nanoparticles -Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
  • Table 164: Markets, benefits and applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles……………………… 375
  • Table 165: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tons), conservative and optimistic estimates…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 379
  • Table 166: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles producers………………………………………………………………. 383
  • Table 167: Nanomaterials scorecard for zinc oxide nanoparticles……………………………………………. 386
  • Table 168: Market summary for zinc oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 386
  • Table 169: Markets, benefits and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles………………………………. 388
  • Table 170: Demand for zinc oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………. 392
  • Table 171: Main Zinc oxide nanoparticles-Suppliers, products, primary particle size……………….. 396
  • Table 172: Zinc oxide nanoparticles producers………………………………………………………………………… 396
  • Table 173: Nanomaterials scorecard for zirconium oxide nanoparticles…………………………………… 400
  • Table 174: Market summary for zirconium oxide nanoparticles-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, high volume applications, low volume applications and novel applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 400
  • Table 175: Markets, benefits and applications of zirconium oxide nanoparticles……………………… 402
  • Table 176: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………… 406
  • Table 177: Prices of zirconium oxide nanoparticles………………………………………………………………….. 408
  • Table 178: Zirconium oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………….. 410
  • Table 179: Markets, benefits and applications of nano precipitated calcium carbonate……………. 413
  • Table 180: Nanoprecipitated calcium carbonate nanoparticles producers………………………………… 414
  • Table 181: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4………………….. 415
  • Table 182: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………….. 417
  • Table 183: Graphene and carbon quantum dots producers……………………………………………………… 419
  • Table 184: Markets, benefits and applications of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles……………………….. 419
  • Table 185: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………. 420
  • Table 186: Markets, benefits and applications of palladium nanoparticles……………………………….. 421
  • Table 187: Palladium nanoparticles producers…………………………………………………………………………. 421
  • Table 188: Yttrium oxide nanoparticles producers……………………………………………………………………. 422
  • Table 189: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 428
  • Table 190: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications……………………………….. 431
  • Table 191: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications………………… 434
  • Table 192: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications………………………………….. 436
  • Table 193: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications…………………………………… 439
  • Table 194: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications……………………………………… 441
  • Table 195: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications……………….. 445
  • Table 196: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications………………….. 448
  • Table 197: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 450
  • Table 198: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications………………………………………… 453
  • Table 199: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications………………………………. 456
  • Table 200: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications……………………… 457

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Demand for nanomaterials (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………… 43
  • Figure 2: National Nanotechnology (NNI) funding, 2001-2016……………………………………………………. 52
  • Figure 3: Graphene-enabled bendable smartphone…………………………………………………………………… 58
  • Figure 4: Graphene coated solar panels in China………………………………………………………………………. 59
  • Figure 5: Nanotechnology patent applications, 1991-2017…………………………………………………………. 66
  • Figure 6: Share of nanotechnology related patent applications since 1972, by country……………… 67
  • Figure 7: Demand for aluminium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………………. 72
  • Figure 8: Demand for aluminium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………………. 72
  • Figure 9: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles…………………….. 74
  • Figure 10: Demand of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………… 76
  • Figure 11: Demand for Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2017…………………………………….. 77
  • Figure 12: Demand for Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2028…………………………………….. 77
  • Figure 13: Demand for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………. 85
  • Figure 14: Demand for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………. 86
  • Figure 15: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles………………. 87
  • Figure 16: Demand for antimony tin oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………. 88
  • Figure 17: Demand of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2017………………………………….. 89
  • Figure 18: Demand of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2028………………………………….. 89
  • Figure 19: Demand for bismuth oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………………… 96
  • Figure 20: Demand for bismuth oxide nanoparticles, by market 2027………………………………………… 96
  • Figure 21: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles………………………. 97
  • Figure 22: Demand for bismuth oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………… 99
  • Figure 23: Demand for Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2017………………………………………. 100
  • Figure 24: Demand for Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2028………………………………………. 101
  • Figure 25: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model………… 108
  • Figure 26: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes…………………………………….. 112
  • Figure 27: Demand for carbon nanotubes, by market 2017……………………………………………………… 113
  • Figure 28: Demand for carbon nanotubes, by market 2028……………………………………………………… 114
  • Figure 29: Demand for single-walled carbon nanotubes, by market 2017………………………………… 114
  • Figure 30: Demand for carbon nanotubes (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………………… 118
  • Figure 31: Dmeand for Carbon Nanotubes by region 2017………………………………………………………. 119
  • Figure 32: Dmeand for Carbon Nanotubes by region 2028………………………………………………………. 119
  • Figure 33: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for cerium oxide nanoparticles………………………… 133
  • Figure 34: Demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………………… 134
  • Figure 35: Demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………………… 134
  • Figure 36: Demand for cerium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………… 136
  • Figure 37: Demand for Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2017……………………………………….. 137
  • Figure 38: Demand for Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2028……………………………………….. 137
  • Figure 39: Demand for cobalt oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………………. 143
  • Figure 40: Demand for cobalt oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………………. 143
  • Figure 41: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles……………………….. 144
  • Figure 42: Demand for cobalt oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………. 145
  • Figure 43: Demand for Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2017…………………………………………. 146
  • Figure 44: Demand for Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles by region 2028…………………………………………. 147
  • Figure 45: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles by market, 2017……………………………………….. 152
  • Figure 46: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles by market, 2028……………………………………….. 153
  • Figure 47: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for copper oxide nanoparticles………………………… 154
  • Figure 48: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………… 155
  • Figure 49: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles by region, 2017…………………………………………. 156
  • Figure 50: Demand for copper oxide nanoparticles by region, 2028…………………………………………. 157
  • Figure 51: Dendrimer structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 161
  • Figure 52: Dendrimer schematic for application in biomedicine………………………………………………… 162
  • Figure 53: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for dendrimers…………………………………………………. 165
  • Figure 54: Demand for dendrimers by market, 2017………………………………………………………………… 166
  • Figure 55: Demand for dendrimers by market, 2028………………………………………………………………… 166
  • Figure 56: Demand for dendrimers (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………… 168
  • Figure 57: Demand for dendrimers by region 2017…………………………………………………………………… 169
  • Figure 58: Demand for dendrimers by region 2028…………………………………………………………………… 169
  • Figure 59: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for fullerenes…………………………………………………… 174
  • Figure 60: Demand for fullerenes, by market 2017…………………………………………………………………… 175
  • Figure 61: Demand for fullerenes, by market 2028…………………………………………………………………… 175
  • Figure 62: Demand for fullerenes (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………………………… 177
  • Figure 63: Demand for fullerenes by region 2017…………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • Figure 64: Demand for fullerenes by region 2028…………………………………………………………………….. 179
  • Figure 65: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for gold nanoparticles……………………………………… 186
  • Figure 66: Demand for gold nanoparticles, by market 2017……………………………………………………… 187
  • Figure 67: Demand for gold nanoparticles, by market 2028……………………………………………………… 187
  • Figure 68: Demand for gold nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 69: Demand for gold nanoparticles by region 2017……………………………………………………….. 190
  • Figure 70: Demand for gold nanoparticles by region 2028……………………………………………………….. 191
  • Figure 71: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • Figure 72: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene……………………………………………………. 202
  • Figure 73: Demand for graphene, by market 2017…………………………………………………………………… 203
  • Figure 74: Demand for graphene, by market 2028…………………………………………………………………… 204
  • Figure 75: Demand for graphene 2010-2028 in tons/year………………………………………………………… 206
  • Figure 76: Production volumes of graphene by region 2017…………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 77: Production volumes of graphene by region 2028…………………………………………………….. 208
  • Figure 78: Graphene pricing 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
  • Figure 79: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for iron oxide nanoparticles…………………………….. 227
  • Figure 80: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………………….. 228
  • Figure 81: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………………….. 228
  • Figure 82: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………….. 230
  • Figure 83: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles by region 2017………………………………………………. 231
  • Figure 84: Demand for iron oxide nanoparticles by region 2028………………………………………………. 231
  • Figure 85: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for magnesium oxide nanoparticles………………… 238
  • Figure 86: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………… 239
  • Figure 87: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………… 239
  • Figure 88: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………… 241
  • Figure 89: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles by region 2017………………………………….. 242
  • Figure 90: Demand for magnesium oxide nanoparticles by region 2028………………………………….. 242
  • Figure 91: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for manganese oxide nanoparticles………………… 247
  • Figure 92: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………… 248
  • Figure 93: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………… 249
  • Figure 94: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………… 250
  • Figure 95: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles by region 2017………………………………….. 251
  • Figure 96: Demand for manganese oxide nanoparticles by region 2028………………………………….. 251
  • Figure 97: Types of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………. 256
  • Figure 98: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanocellulose…………………………………………….. 262
  • Figure 99: Demand for nanocellulose, by market 2017…………………………………………………………….. 264
  • Figure 100: Demand for nanocellulose, by market 2028…………………………………………………………… 264
  • Figure 101: Demand for nanocellulose (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………………… 266
  • Figure 102: Demand for nanocellulose by region 2017…………………………………………………………….. 267
  • Figure 103: Demand for nanocellulose by region 2028…………………………………………………………….. 268
  • Figure 104: Nanoclays structure. The dimensions of a clay platelet are typically 200-1000 nm in lateral dimension and 1 nm thick………………………………………………………………………………………… 279
  • Figure 105: TEM of montmorillonite………………………………………………………………………………………….. 279
  • Figure 106:  TEM of halloysite nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………… 280
  • Figure 107: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanoclays………………………………………………… 283
  • Figure 108: Demand for nanoclays, by market 2017………………………………………………………………… 284
  • Figure 109: Demand for nanoclays, by market 2028………………………………………………………………… 285
  • Figure 110: Demand for nanoclays (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………… 286
  • Figure 111: Demand for nanoclays by region 2017………………………………………………………………….. 287
  • Figure 112: Demand for nanoclays by region 2028………………………………………………………………….. 288
  • Figure 113: Demand for nanodiamonds, by market 2017…………………………………………………………. 298
  • Figure 114: Demand for nanodiamonds, by market 2028…………………………………………………………. 298
  • Figure 115: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanodiamonds…………………………………………. 299
  • Figure 116: Demand for nanodiamonds, 2010-2028………………………………………………………………… 300
  • Figure 117: Demand for nanodiamonds by region……………………………………………………………………. 301
  • Figure 118: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanofibers………………………………………………… 306
  • Figure 119: Demand for nanofibers, by market………………………………………………………………………… 307
  • Figure 120: Production volumes of nanofibers (tons), 2010-2028…………………………………………….. 309
  • Figure 121: Demand for nanofibers by region…………………………………………………………………………… 310
  • Figure 122: Supply chain for nanosilver products…………………………………………………………………….. 317
  • Figure 123: Demand for nanosilver, by market 2017………………………………………………………………… 319
  • Figure 124: Demand for nanosilver, by market 2028………………………………………………………………… 320
  • Figure 125: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanosilver………………………………………………… 321
  • Figure 126: Demand for nanosilver (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………………………………… 322
  • Figure 127: Demand for nanosilver, by region 2017…………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 128: Demand for nanosilver, by region 2028…………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 129: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nanowires………………………………………………… 330
  • Figure 130: Demand for nanowires, by market 2017………………………………………………………………… 330
  • Figure 131: Demand for nanowires, by market 2028………………………………………………………………… 331
  • Figure 132: Demand for nanowires, by region 2017…………………………………………………………………. 332
  • Figure 133: Demand for nanowires, by region 2028…………………………………………………………………. 332
  • Figure 134: Demand for nickel nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………………………. 337
  • Figure 135: Demand for nickel nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………………………. 337
  • Figure 136: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for nickel nanoparticles…………………………………. 338
  • Figure 137: Demand for nickel nanoparticle (tons), 2010-2028………………………………………………… 339
  • Figure 138: Demand for nickel nanoparticles, by region 2017………………………………………………….. 340
  • Figure 139: Demand for nickel nanoparticles, by region 2028………………………………………………….. 341
  • Figure 140: Quantum dot………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 344
  • Figure 141: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band……………………………………………………………………………….. 345
  • Figure 142: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for quantum dots…………………………………………… 350
  • Figure 143: Demand for quantum dots, by market 2017…………………………………………………………… 351
  • Figure 144: Demand for quantum dots, by market 2028…………………………………………………………… 351
  • Figure 145: Total QD revenues 2013-2028 ($M), conservative and optimistic estimates…………. 353
  • Figure 146: Demand quantum dots by region 2017………………………………………………………………….. 354
  • Figure 147: Demand quantum dots by region 2028………………………………………………………………….. 354
  • Figure 148: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for silicon oxide nanoparticles……………………….. 363
  • Figure 149: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………………. 364
  • Figure 150: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………………. 365
  • Figure 151: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………. 366
  • Figure 152: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles by region 2017…………………………………………. 367
  • Figure 153: Demand for silicon oxide nanoparticles by region 2028…………………………………………. 368
  • Figure 154: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles………………….. 377
  • Figure 155: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………. 378
  • Figure 156: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………. 379
  • Figure 157: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles (tons), conservative and optimistic estimates 2010-2028…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 380
  • Figure 158: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles, by region 2017………………………………….. 381
  • Figure 159: Demand for titanium dioxide nanoparticles, by region 2028………………………………….. 382
  • Figure 160: Demand for zinc oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017………………………………………….. 391
  • Figure 161: Demand for zinc oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028………………………………………….. 392
  • Figure 162: Demand for zinc oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028……………………………………….. 393
  • Figure 163: Production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles, by region 2017…………………………… 394
  • Figure 164: Production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles, by region 2028…………………………… 395
  • Figure 165: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2017…………………………………. 405
  • Figure 166: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles, by market 2028…………………………………. 405
  • Figure 167: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles (tons), 2010-2028………………………………. 407
  • Figure 168: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles, by region 2017………………………………….. 408
  • Figure 169: Demand for zirconium oxide nanoparticles, by region 2028………………………………….. 408
  • Figure 170: Applications of yttrium oxide nanoparticles……………………………………………………………. 422
  • Figure 171: TEM image of carbon onion…………………………………………………………………………………… 423
  • Figure 172: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns…………………………………………………….. 425
  • Figure 173: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 426
  • Figure 174: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………. 427
  • Figure 175: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………. 428
  • Figure 176: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 429
  • Figure 177: Graphitic carbon nitride………………………………………………………………………………………….. 433
  • Figure 178: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal. Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology……………………………. 434
  • Figure 179: Schematic of germanene……………………………………………………………………………………….. 435
  • Figure 180: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………… 438
  • Figure 181: Schematic of Graphane crystal……………………………………………………………………………… 441
  • Figure 182: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………… 443
  • Figure 183: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………… 446
  • Figure 184: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………. 447
  • Figure 185: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide……………………………………………………… 449
  • Figure 186: Silicene structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 451
  • Figure 187: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate………………………………………………………. 452
  • Figure 188: Silicene transistor………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 452
  • Figure 189: Crystal structure for stanene………………………………………………………………………………….. 454
  • Figure 190: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………….. 455
  • Figure 191: Schematic of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………….. 457
  • Figure 192: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)…………………………………………………………………….. 459