The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027

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Revised March 2018 | 377 pages | 59 tables, 110 figures | Table of contents

“An excellent report on the printable and flexible electronics market.” Florian Theisen, Heraeus.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and electronics will enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics.

The recent growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearables has created the need for electronics and sensor systems that are small, lightweight, mechanically flexible and low-power. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics. Applications covered in this report include:

Electronic components and displays

  • Multilayer printing of circuitry.
  • Large-area electronic-based sensors for Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Organic-semiconductor based circuits.
  • Highly stretchable large-area sensors.
  • Large-area flexible electronic devices.
  • Inkjet-printed stretchable electrodes.
  • Stretchable, biocompatible and biodegradable substrates.
  • Wireless sensors and networks.
  • Structural monitoring.

Energy harvesting and storage

  • RF, piezo and thermal harvesting.
  • Flexible PV cells.
  • Printed PV cells.
  • Printed flexible energy harvesting devices.
  • OLED lighting.
  • Novel interconnects.
  • Printable batteries and supercapacitors.
  • Flexible thermoelectric devices.

Smart wearables

  • Smarter and lighter wearable consumer electronics.
  • Stretchable/ultra-flexible electronics.
  • Fitness monitoring.
  • Biosensors for sports.

Automotive

  • Integrated dashboards.
  • Flexible OLEDs.

Healthcare and medical

  • Health monitoring devices, including intelligent patches and bandages for medical treatments.
  • Flexible X-ray imaging.
  • On-body ECG monitoring.
  • Biosensors and electronics to interface biological tissue.
  • Artificial skins.
  • Printed and Flexible Sensors for Vital Signs Monitoring.

Development areas covered include:

  • New organic semiconducting materials for organic electronics.
  • Conductive inks for 2D and 3D printed devices.
  • Flexible IGZO backplanes.
  • Stretchable thermoformed inks.
  • OTFTs (organic thin-film transistors).
  • Solution processed polymer semiconductors for thin-film transistors.
  • Transparent conducting films (TCF) for touch sensors.
  • Organic thin film transistors (OTFT).
  • Organic photodetectors (OPD).
  • Nanomaterials based printed, flexible and stretchable electronics and applications.
  • Graphene for flexible electronics.
  • Flexible transparent conductive electrodes for Organic Devices.
  • Hybrid transparent conductors for deformable displays.

Report contents include:

  • Current and future printable, flexible and stretchable products.
  • Advanced materials used in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Market figures for conductive inks, by materials type and revenues to 2027.
  • Market figures for inkjetable conductive inks to 2027.
  • Global market revenues for wearable electronics to 2027.
  • Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type.
  • Addressable market for smart textiles and wearables in medical and healthcare.
  • Global market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries to 2027.
  • Global smart clothing and apparel market revenues to 2027.
  • Global market for flexible OLED displays to 2027.
  • Over 270 in-depth company profiles.
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
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The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible and Stretchable Sensors and Electronics 2018-2027
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 30

  • 1.1    The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
    • 1.1.1     The wearables revolution……………………………………………………………………………………….. 31
    • 1.1.2     Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………. 32
  • 1.2    What are flexible and stretchable electronics?……………………………………………………………….. 34
    • 1.2.1     From rigid to flexible and stretchable……………………………………………………………………… 34
    • 1.2.2     Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 36
    • 1.2.3     New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
  • 1.3    Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market……………………………………………………… 41
    • 1.3.1     Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products………………………………… 41
    • 1.3.2     Future growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 41
    • 1.3.3     Nanotechnology as a market driver……………………………………………………………………….. 42
    • 1.3.4     Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………… 43

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 46

3    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE ELECTRONIC MATERIALS AND COMPOSITES………………………………………………… 47

  • 3.1    CARBON NANOTUBES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 3.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
    • 3.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 48
    • 3.1.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 51
  • 3.2    CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS (CP)…………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • 3.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
      • 3.2.1.1       PDMS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
      • 3.2.1.2       PEDOT: PSS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54
    • 3.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 55
    • 3.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 56
  • 3.3    GRAPHENE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57
    • 3.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 57
    • 3.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 59
    • 3.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 60
  • 3.4    METAL MESH………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
    • 3.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
    • 3.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 64
    • 3.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 65
  • 3.5    SILVER INK (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)……………………………………………………….. 66
    • 3.5.1     Silver flake……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
    • 3.5.2     Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
      • 3.5.2.1       Conductivity…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67
    • 3.5.3     Silver nanowires…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
    • 3.5.4     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
      • 3.5.4.1       Cost for printed area………………………………………………………………………………………. 70
  • 3.6    COPPER INK…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
    • 3.6.1     Silver-coated copper………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.6.2     Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………. 72
    • 3.6.3     Prices……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
  • 3.7    NANOCELLULOSE………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
    • 3.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
    • 3.7.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 75
    • 3.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 76
      • 3.7.3.1       Nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 78
      • 3.7.3.2       Paper memory……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 3.8    NANOFIBERS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81
    • 3.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 3.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 81
    • 3.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 82
  • 3.9    QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
    • 3.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
    • 3.9.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 85
    • 3.9.3     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………. 85
  • 3.10      GRAPHENE AND CARBON QUANTUM DOTS………………………………………………………… 87
    • 3.10.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
    • 3.10.2        Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………….. 89
  • 3.11      OTHER TYPES………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 3.11.1        Gold (Au) nanoparticle ink………………………………………………………………………………….. 90
    • 3.11.2        Siloxane inks……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
  • 3.12      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………… 90
    • 3.12.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………… 90
      • 3.12.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
      • 3.12.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 93
    • 3.12.2        Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………………………. 94
      • 3.12.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 94
      • 3.12.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 95
    • 3.12.3        Germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
      • 3.12.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
      • 3.12.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 96
    • 3.12.4        Graphdiyne………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 97
      • 3.12.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
      • 3.12.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 98
    • 3.12.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
      • 3.12.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
      • 3.12.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………… 99
    • 3.12.6        Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………… 100
      • 3.12.6.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
      • 3.12.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 101
    • 3.12.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)………………………………………………………………………….. 102
      • 3.12.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102
      • 3.12.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 103
    • 3.12.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………….. 105
      • 3.12.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
      • 3.12.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 106
    • 3.12.9        Silicene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
      • 3.12.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 107
      • 3.12.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………. 108
    • 3.12.10      Stanene/tinene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 109
      • 3.12.10.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110
      • 3.12.10.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 111
    • 3.12.11      Tungsten diselenide…………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
      • 3.12.11.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 3.12.11.2       Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………… 112
    • 3.12.12      Antimonene……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 3.12.12.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
      • 3.12.12.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
    • 3.12.13      Indium selenide………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
      • 3.12.13.1       Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………… 113
      • 3.12.13.2       Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………… 114

4    PRINTABLE, FLEXIBLE AND STRETCHABLE CONDUCTIVE INKS     115

  • 4.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115
  • 4.2    CONDUCTIVE INK TYPES………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • 4.3    PRINTING METHODS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
  • 4.3.1     Nanoparticle ink……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 119
  • 4.4    Sintering……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
  • 4.5    Conductive Filaments…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 120
  • 4.6    Conductive films, foils and grids…………………………………………………………………………………… 121
  • 4.7   Inkjet printing In flexible electronics……………………………………………………………………………… 125
  • 4.9    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 4.9.1     Current products…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126
    • 4.9.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 127
    • 4.9.3     RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 132
    • 4.9.4     Smart labels…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
    • 4.9.5     Smart clothing………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 4.9.6     Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
    • 4.9.7     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 135
    • 4.9.8     Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
    • 4.9.9     In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
    • 4.9.10        Printed transistors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 139
  • 4.10      GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
  • 4.11      COMPANY PROFILES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143-186 (102 company profiles)

5    WEARABLE ELECTRONICS AND IOT…………………………………… 188

  • 5.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • 5.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
    • 5.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
    • 5.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 195
    • 5.2.3     Transparent conductive films……………………………………………………………………………….. 196
      • 5.2.3.1       Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………. 201
      • 5.2.3.2       Double-walled carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………… 203
      • 5.2.3.3       Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 203
      • 5.2.3.4       Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
      • 5.2.3.5       Nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………………………. 206
      • 5.2.3.6       Copper nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
      • 5.2.3.7       Nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
    • 5.2.4     Wearable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
      • 5.2.4.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………… 210
      • 5.2.4.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………. 213
      • 5.2.4.3       Wearable gas sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 218
      • 5.2.4.4       Wearable strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 220
      • 5.2.4.5       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 220
      • 5.2.4.6       Industrial monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
      • 5.2.4.7       Military…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • 5.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 222
    • 5.3.1     Transparent conductive electrodes………………………………………………………………………. 224
  • 5.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225-251 (60 company profiles)

6    MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE SENSORS AND WEARABLES… 253

  • 6.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
  • 6.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 255
    • 6.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 256
    • 6.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 261
      • 6.2.2.1       Skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………… 261
      • 6.2.2.2       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………… 262
    • 6.2.3     Printable, flexible and stretchable health monitors……………………………………………….. 263
      • 6.2.3.1       Patch-type skin sensors………………………………………………………………………………. 265
      • 6.2.3.2       Skin temperature monitoring………………………………………………………………………… 269
      • 6.2.3.3       Hydration sensors………………………………………………………………………………………… 270
      • 6.2.3.4       Wearable sweat sensors……………………………………………………………………………… 271
      • 6.2.3.5       UV patches………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 273
      • 6.2.3.6       Smart footwear…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 275
  • 6.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 275
  • 6.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 277-292 (37 company profiles)

7    ELECTRONIC CLOTHING AND APPAREL…………………………….. 293

  • 7.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 293
  • 7.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 295
    • 7.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 297
    • 7.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 299
    • 7.2.3     Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
    • 7.2.4     Conductive coatings…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
    • 7.2.5     Smart helmets………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 310
    • 7.2.6     Solar energy harvesting textiles…………………………………………………………………………… 311
  • 7.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 312
  • 7.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 315-328 (34 company profiles)

8    ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION………………………………. 329

  • 8.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 329
  • 8.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 330
    • 8.2.1     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………. 330
    • 8.2.2     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………. 333
      • 8.2.2.1       Flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………………………… 333
      • 8.2.2.2       Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors…………………………………………………….. 335
      • 8.2.2.3       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries………………………………………………………………. 337
      • 8.2.2.4       Flexible OLED lighting…………………………………………………………………………………. 338
      • 8.2.2.5       Quantum dot lighting……………………………………………………………………………………. 339
      • 8.2.2.6       Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………… 342
      • 8.2.2.7       Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting………………………………………………….. 343
  • 8.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 343
  • 8.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 346-352 (17 company profiles)

9    DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS………………………. 354

  • 9.1    MARKET DRIVERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 354
  • 9.2    APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 354
    • 9.2.1     Printable, flexible and stretchable circuit boards and interconnects……………………… 355
    • 9.2.2     Printable, flexible and stretchable transistors……………………………………………………….. 356
    • 9.2.3     Flexible displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 357
      • 9.2.3.1       Flexible LCDs………………………………………………………………………………………………. 359
      • 9.2.3.2       Flexible OLEDs (FOLED)…………………………………………………………………………….. 360
      • 9.2.3.3       Flexible AMOLED………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
      • 9.2.3.4       Flexible electrophoretic displays………………………………………………………………….. 363
    • 9.2.4     Smart windows…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 364
  • 9.3    GLOBAL MARKET SIZE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 368
  • 9.4    COMPANY PROFILES………………………………………………………………………………………………… 369-376 (18 company profiles)

TABLES

  • Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017……………………………………………………………………. 31
  • Table 2: Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • Table 3: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………….. 40
  • Table 4: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………….. 42
  • Table 5: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials……………………………………………………………… 47
  • Table 6: Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
  • Table 7: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………… 55
  • Table 8: Properties of graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 58
  • Table 9: Companies developing graphene for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
  • Table 10: Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
  • Table 11: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………. 64
  • Table 12: Companies developing metal mesh for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
  • Table 13: Nanocellulose properties…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • Table 14: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………. 74
  • Table 15: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………….. 75
  • Table 16: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………….. 78
  • Table 17: Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • Table 18: Companies developing quantum dots for applications in printable, flexible and stretchable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
  • Table 19: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………. 87
  • Table 20: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………. 88
  • Table 21: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2. 92
  • Table 22: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable conductive inks……………………….. 115
  • Table 23: Typical conductive ink formulation…………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • Table 24:  Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks…………………………….. 122
  • Table 25: Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks……………………………….. 123
  • Table 26: Printable electronics products…………………………………………………………………………………… 126
  • Table 27: Comparative properties of conductive inks……………………………………………………………….. 127
  • Table 28: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof…………………………………….. 128
  • Table 29: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics……………………………………… 133
  • Table 30: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 136
  • Table 31: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 140
  • Table 32: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………….. 141
  • Table 33: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
  • Table 34: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors for wearables and IoT… 188
  • Table 35: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development…………………………………………. 193
  • Table 36: Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT………………………………………………………………… 197
  • Table 37: Comparison of ITO replacements……………………………………………………………………………… 197
  • Table 38: Applications in printable, flexible and stretchable sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
  • Table 39: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors……………………………………………. 216
  • Table 40: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $………….. 223
  • Table 41: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 253
  • Table 42: Wearable medical device products and stage of development…………………………………. 257
  • Table 43: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 263
  • Table 44: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………. 268
  • Table 45: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic clothing and apparel.. 293
  • Table 46: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………. 296
  • Table 47: Examples of smart textile products…………………………………………………………………………… 296
  • Table 48: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………. 297
  • Table 49: Smart clothing and apparel and stage of development…………………………………………….. 298
  • Table 50: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………. 300
  • Table 51: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 303
  • Table 52: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………….. 309
  • Table 53: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market…………………………………… 313
  • Table 54: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable electronic energy storage and converison………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 329
  • Table 55: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………… 332
  • Table 56: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
  • Table 57: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
  • Table 58: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof. 340
  • Table 59: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries…………………… 344
  • Table 60: Market drivers for printable, flexible and stretchable displays and electronic components…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 354
  • Table 61: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 356
  • Table 62: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………….. 357
  • Table 63: Technologies for smart windows in buildings……………………………………………………………. 366

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • Figure 2: Wove Band………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor……………………………………………………………………………. 36
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………… 37
  • Figure 5: Mimo Baby Monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
  • Figure 6: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………….. 45
  • Figure 7: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube………………………………………………………………. 50
  • Figure 8: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics………………………. 50
  • Figure 9: Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes………………………………………. 53
  • Figure 10: Graphene layer structure schematic………………………………………………………………………….. 59
  • Figure 11: Flexible graphene touch screen…………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • Figure 12: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
  • Figure 13: Large-area metal mesh touch panel………………………………………………………………………….. 63
  • Figure 14: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67
  • Figure 15: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh…………………………………………………………………….. 70
  • Figure 16: Copper based inks on flexible substrate……………………………………………………………………. 71
  • Figure 17:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………… 76
  • Figure 18: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Figure 19: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………….. 77
  • Figure 20: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
  • Figure 21: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
  • Figure 22: Paper memory (ReRAM)……………………………………………………………………………………………. 80
  • Figure 23: Quantum dot……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83
  • Figure 24: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
  • Figure 25: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………….. 91
  • Figure 26: Black Phosphorus crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
  • Figure 27: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94
  • Figure 28: Graphitic carbon nitride……………………………………………………………………………………………… 94
  • Figure 29: Schematic of germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
  • Figure 30: Graphdiyne structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 98
  • Figure 31: Schematic of Graphane crystal………………………………………………………………………………….. 99
  • Figure 32: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride………………………………………………………………………… 100
  • Figure 33: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide…………………………………………………………………….. 102
  • Figure 34: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • Figure 35: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor…………. 104
  • Figure 36: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge……………………………………………………………………………… 105
  • Figure 37: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide…………………………………………………….. 106
  • Figure 38: Silicene structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
  • Figure 39: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate…………………………………………………………. 108
  • Figure 40: Silicene transistor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • Figure 41: Crystal structure for stanene……………………………………………………………………………………. 110
  • Figure 42: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)……………………………………. 110
  • Figure 43: Schematic of tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………. 112
  • Figure 44: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)………………………………………………………………………. 114
  • Figure 45: BGT Materials graphene ink product……………………………………………………………………….. 132
  • Figure 46: Flexible RFID tag…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
  • Figure 47: Enfucell Printed Battery…………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
  • Figure 48: Graphene printed antenna………………………………………………………………………………………. 138
  • Figure 49: Printed antennas for aircraft…………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • Figure 50: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics………………………………………… 139
  • Figure 51: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………… 139
  • Figure 52: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………. 140
  • Figure 53: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types………………………………………………………………………………………….. 142
  • Figure 54: Covestro wearables…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 195
  • Figure 55: Royole flexible display……………………………………………………………………………………………… 196
  • Figure 56: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film……………………………………………………………………. 199
  • Figure 57: Bending durability of Ag nanowires………………………………………………………………………….. 206
  • Figure 58: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 207
  • Figure 59: NFC translucent diffuser schematic…………………………………………………………………………. 208
  • Figure 60: Softceptor sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211
  • Figure 61: BeBop Media Arm Controller…………………………………………………………………………………… 212
  • Figure 62: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor………………………………………………………………. 212
  • Figure 63: C2Sense flexible sensor………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213
  • Figure 64: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom).. 214
  • Figure 65: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………….. 215
  • Figure 66: Wearable gas sensor………………………………………………………………………………………………. 219
  • Figure 67: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Figure 68: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………… 221
  • Figure 69: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system………………………………………………………. 222
  • Figure 70: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $…………. 223
  • Figure 71: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 225
  • Figure 72: BITalino systems……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 234
  • Figure 73: Connected human body…………………………………………………………………………………………… 256
  • Figure 74: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor…………………………………………………………………. 257
  • Figure 75: Prototype ECG sensor patch…………………………………………………………………………………… 261
  • Figure 76: Graphene-based E-skin patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 262
  • Figure 77: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration……………………………. 265
  • Figure 78: Smart mouth guard………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
  • Figure 79: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 267
  • Figure 80: Graphene medical patch………………………………………………………………………………………….. 268
  • Figure 81: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………….. 270
  • Figure 82: Mimo baby monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 270
  • Figure 83: Nanowire skin hydration patch…………………………………………………………………………………. 271
  • Figure 84: Wearable sweat sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………… 272
  • Figure 85: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………… 273
  • Figure 86: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 274
  • Figure 87: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………… 275
  • Figure 88: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
  • Figure 89: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 277
  • Figure 90: Omniphobic-coated fabric………………………………………………………………………………………… 299
  • Figure 91: Conductive yarns…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 308
  • Figure 92: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements……… 310
  • Figure 93: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper………………………………… 311
  • Figure 94: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 313
  • Figure 95 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016. 314
  • Figure 96: Energy harvesting textile…………………………………………………………………………………………. 330
  • Figure 97: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………….. 331
  • Figure 98: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery…………………………………………………………………………………. 331
  • Figure 99: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 334
  • Figure 100: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries……………………………. 335
  • Figure 101: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor……………………………………………………………………. 336
  • Figure 102: LG OLED flexible lighting panel…………………………………………………………………………….. 338
  • Figure 103: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………….. 339
  • Figure 104: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots…………………………………………….. 340
  • Figure 105: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2015, by market……………………… 345
  • Figure 106: Demand for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 2027, by market……………………… 346
  • Figure 107: LG Display LG Display 77-inch flexible transparent OLED display………………………… 355
  • Figure 108: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs………………………………………………………………….. 357
  • Figure 109:  Carbon nanotubes flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………… 358
  • Figure 110: Flexible LCD………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 359
  • Figure 111: “Full ActiveTM Flex”………………………………………………………………………………………………. 360
  • Figure 112: FOLED schematic………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 361
  • Figure 113: Foldable display…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
  • Figure 114: Stretchable AMOLED…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
  • Figure 115: LGD 12.3” FHD Automotive OLED………………………………………………………………………… 363
  • Figure 116: LECTUM® display…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 364
  • Figure 117: SPD smart windows schematic……………………………………………………………………………… 364
  • Figure 118: Vertical insulated glass unit for a Suntuitive® thermochromic window…………………… 365
  • Figure 119: Nanocrystal smart glass that can switch between fully transparent, heat-blocking, and light-and-heat-blocking modes……………………………………………………………………………………………. 366
  • Figure 120: Global market for flexible OLED displays, 2015-2027 (billion $)……………………………. 369