The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018

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Published April 2018 | 228 pages, 103 tables, 49 figures | Table of contents

Nanocellulose is a novel biomaterial with multiple industrial uses for replacing fossil derived raw materials. The market mainly consists of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) production at present as alternatives to resins, synthetic thickeners, strengtheners, and plastics. Cellulose nanofiber products have already hit the market, especially in Japan, and are viewed as advanced materials solutions packaging and composites sectors.

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a promising future investment opportunity. Most companies are focusing on high volume production for composites, packaging and paper industries. However, many opportunities exist in electronics, 3D printing, textiles and medicine.

Current production capacity far exceeds the market demand at present, but this is likely to change as prices drop in the next few years, and there is less distance to fall than with other nanomaterials as cellulose nanofibers are broadly cost competitive (<$50/kg). Producers have already begun to produce additives that are competitive with conventional polymer composites (e.g. carbon fibers).

This 228 page report examines:

  • Advantages and shortcomings of nanocellulose as a technology component.
  • Pricing landscape for nanocellulose, by types and producers.
  • Production volumes by nanocellulose producer.
  • Provides a map of the current competitive landscape by market.
  • Market impediments for nanocellulose by target market.
  • Profiles all the major players in nanocellulose production.
  • Profiles all the major application developers including current and intended products.
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
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The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
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The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
The Nanocellulose Investment and Pricing Guide 2018
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From series: Investment guides

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 17

  • 1.1    Investment analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
  • 1.2    Market impediment analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

2    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 24

  • 2.1    Main markets and applications……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
  • 2.2    Main opportunities in nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • 2.3    Production in 2017…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
  • 2.4    The market for nanocellulose in 2017…………………………………………………………………………….. 34
  • 2.5    Nanocellulose market by region……………………………………………………………………………………… 39
  • 2.6    The market for nanocellulose in 2018…………………………………………………………………………….. 43
  • 2.7    Japan market leads the way…………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

3    TYPES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE NANOCELULOSE……. 45

  • 3.1    Microfibrillated cellulose…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
  • 3.2    NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC/CFC)………………………………………………………………………………… 49
    • 3.2.1     Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods…………………………………………………………. 49
    • 3.2.2     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • 3.3    NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC/CNC)…………………………………………………………………………… 52
    • 3.3.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
    • 3.3.2     Nanocrystalline cellulose production methods……………………………………………………….. 54
  • 3.4    Bacterial Cellulose (BCC)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
    • 3.4.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55

4    NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION………………………………………………………………. 56

5    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITES IN NANOCELLULOSE…………… 60

  • 5.1    Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales……………. 60
  • 5.2    Current end users for nanocellulose, by market and company………………………………………. 61

6    NANOCELLULOSE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCTION CAPACITIES, CURRENT AND PLANNED…………………………………………………………. 64

  • 6.1    Cellulose nanofiber production……………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
  • 6.2    Cellulose nanocrystal production……………………………………………………………………………………. 65

7    NANOCELLULOSE PRICING………………………………………………….. 66

  • 7.1    Cellulose nanofiber Gel/ Cellulose nanofiber Slurry/MFC pricing…………………………………… 66
  • 7.2    NCC pricing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
  • 7.3    Bulk supply…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 7.4    Commoditisation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69

8    COMMERCIAL OPPORTUNITES IN NANOCELLULOSE…………… 70

  • 8.1    Short-term growth…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 70
  • 8.2    Medium-term growth………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71
  • 8.3    Opportunities in printed and flexible electronics……………………………………………………………… 71
  • 8.4    COMPOSITES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
    • 8.4.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74
    • 8.4.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 76
    • 8.4.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 78
    • 8.4.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
  • 8.5    BIOPACKAGING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
    • 8.5.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
    • 8.5.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 8.5.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 84
    • 8.5.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 88
  • 8.6    PAPER & BOARD………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
    • 8.6.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
    • 8.6.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 92
    • 8.6.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 93
    • 8.6.4     Market impediments……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95
  • 8.7    AEROSPACE AND AVIATION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
    • 8.7.1     Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 96
    • 8.7.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………….. 98
    • 8.7.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………….. 98
    • 8.7.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 100
  • 8.8    AUTOMOTIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 101
    • 8.8.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
    • 8.8.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 103
    • 8.8.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………… 104
    • 8.8.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
  • 8.9    CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING………………………………………………………………………………. 110
    • 8.9.1     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
    • 8.9.2     Current and planned commercial activity……………………………………………………………… 110
    • 8.9.3     Nanocellulose market opportunity………………………………………………………………………… 114
    • 8.9.4     Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
  • 8.10      TEXTILES AND CLOTHING…………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
    • 8.10.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 117
    • 8.10.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 118
    • 8.10.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 118
    • 8.10.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 120
  • 8.11      MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE…………………………………………………………………………………….. 121
    • 8.11.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 121
    • 8.11.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 123
    • 8.11.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 125
    • 8.11.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
  • 8.12      COATINGS AND PAINTS………………………………………………………………………………………… 127
    • 8.12.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 128
    • 8.12.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 130
    • 8.12.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 131
    • 8.12.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
  • 8.13      AEROGELS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 8.13.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 137
    • 8.13.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 139
    • 8.13.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 139
    • 8.13.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 141
  • 8.14      OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 8.14.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
    • 8.14.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 143
    • 8.14.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 143
    • 8.14.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
  • 8.15      FILTRATION AND SEPARATION……………………………………………………………………………. 147
    • 8.15.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
    • 8.15.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 151
    • 8.15.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 152
    • 8.15.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 155
  • 8.16      RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 8.16.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 156
    • 8.16.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 158
    • 8.16.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 158
    • 8.16.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 158
  • 8.17      PRINTABLE, STRETCHABLE AND FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS…………………………….. 159
    • 8.17.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 159
    • 8.17.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 163
    • 8.17.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 163
    • 8.17.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 168
  • 8.18      3D PRINTING…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 8.18.1        Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 169
    • 8.18.2        Current and planned commercial activity…………………………………………………………. 170
    • 8.18.3        Nanocellulose market opportunity……………………………………………………………………. 171
    • 8.18.4        Market impediments…………………………………………………………………………………………. 172
  • 8.19  OTHER MARKETS……………………………………………………………….. 173
    • 8.19.1     Rubber and tire additives……………………………………………………………………………………… 173
    • 8.19.2     Colourants……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173

10 NANOCELLULOSE PRODUCERS…………………………………………. 175

  • 10.1      Producers and types of nanocellulose produced (NCF, NCC, BCC)………………………… 175
  • 10.2      Target markets for producers…………………………………………………………………………………… 176
  • 10.3      Nanocellulose producer production capacities, prices and target markets………………. 178
  • 10.3.1        American Process, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………….. 178
  • 10.3.2        Ashai Kasei Chemicals Corporation…………………………………………………………………. 180
  • 10.3.3        Blue Goose Biorefineries, Inc…………………………………………………………………………… 183
  • 10.3.4        Borregaard Chemcell……………………………………………………………………………………….. 184
  • 10.3.5        Cellucomp Ltd………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 186
  • 10.3.6        Celluforce, Inc………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 187
  • 10.3.7        Chuetsu Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • 10.3.8        Daicel Corporation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
  • 10.3.9        Daio Paper Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………. 191
  • 10.3.10      DIC Products, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 193
  • 10.3.11      DKS Co. Ltd…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • 10.3.12      Hattori Shoten Co., Ltd…………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • 10.3.13      Imerys………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 196
  • 10.3.14      Innventia AB…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 197
  • 10.3.15      Kruger Biomaterials, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………… 198
  • 10.3.16      Melodea/Holmen……………………………………………………………………………………………… 199
  • 10.3.17      Nippon Paper Group, Inc…………………………………………………………………………………. 200
  • 10.3.18      Oji Paper Company Ltd……………………………………………………………………………………. 204
  • 10.3.19      Paperlogic………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 208
  • 10.3.20      Performance BioFilaments Inc…………………………………………………………………………. 209
  • 10.3.21      Renmatrix, Inc………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
  • 10.3.22      Seiko PMC Corporation……………………………………………………………………………………. 210
  • 10.3.23      Stora Enso Ltd…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 211
  • 10.3.24      Sugino Machine Limited…………………………………………………………………………………… 213
  • 10.3.25      University of Maine…………………………………………………………………………………………… 214
  • 10.3.26      UPM-Kymmene……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 215
  • 10.3.27      US Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory……………………………………………….. 216
  • 10.3.28      VTT Technical Research Centre……………………………………………………………………… 218
  • 10.3.29      Zelfo Technology GmbH………………………………………………………………………………….. 221

11 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 223

TABLES

  • Table 1: Markets and applications for nanocellulose………………………………………………………………….. 25
  • Table 2: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose, by application………………………………… 28
  • Table 3: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status……………………………….. 32
  • Table 4: Current and planned production capacities, by major suppliers, pilot/pre-commercial and commercial volumes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
  • Table 5: Nanocellulose products in Japan………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
  • Table 6: SWOT analysis of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
  • Table 7: Properties and applications of nanocellulose………………………………………………………………… 47
  • Table 8: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods……………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Table 9: Applications of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)………………………………………………………………….. 50
  • Table 10: Production methods of NFC producers………………………………………………………………………. 51
  • Table 11: Applications of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)………………………………………………………….. 54
  • Table 12: Cellulose nanocrystals (NCC) production methods…………………………………………………….. 54
  • Table 13: Applications of bacterial cellulose (BC)……………………………………………………………………….. 55
  • Table 14: Nanocellulose market structure…………………………………………………………………………………… 56
  • Table 15: Current and potential end users for nanocellulose, by market and company……………… 61
  • Table 16: Production capacities of CNF producers per annum in tons, current and planned……… 64
  • Table 17: Production capacities of CNC producers per annum in tons, current and planned…….. 65
  • Table 18: Cellulose nanofiber producers, prices/kg and main target markets…………………………….. 66
  • Table 19: NCC producers, prices/kg and main target markets……………………………………………………. 68
  • Table 20: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………….. 73
  • Table 21: Equivalent cost of nanocellulose and competitive materials in polymer composites…… 75
  • Table 22: Applications of nanocellulose in polymer composites by cellulose type……………………… 75
  • Table 23: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market……………………… 76
  • Table 24: Companies developing nanocellulose products in paper and board, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Table 25: Market assessment for nanocellulose in composites………………………………………………….. 78
  • Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in composites……………………………….. 78
  • Table 27: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in composites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 79
  • Table 28: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………….. 81
  • Table 29: Market impediments for nanocellulose in composites…………………………………………………. 81
  • Table 30: Companies developing nanocellulose products in bio packaging, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Table 31: Market assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging……………………………………………….. 84
  • Table 32: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in packaging………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 85
  • Table 33: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in biopackaging…………………………….. 87
  • Table 34:Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………… 88
  • Table 35: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market……………………………. 89
  • Table 36: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets………………………….. 90
  • Table 37: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products…………………………………………….. 92
  • Table 38: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in paper and board……………………….. 93
  • Table 39: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………….. 94
  • Table 40: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the paper and board market……………………….. 95
  • Table 41: Applications in aerospace composites………………………………………………………………………… 96
  • Table 42: Market size for nanocellulose in aerospace and aviation……………………………………………. 99
  • Table 43: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviation market, 2015-2027 (tons).. 100
  • Table 44: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the aerospace market………………………………. 101
  • Table 45: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in the automotive industry, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 103
  • Table 46: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in the automotive sector………………………………………………………………………………………………. 105
  • Table 47: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive sector………………………………… 106
  • Table 48: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the automotive industry…………… 106
  • Table 49: Market size for nanocellulose in the automotive industry………………………………………….. 107
  • Table 50: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………………… 108
  • Table 51: Applications and commercialization challenges in the automotive market………………… 109
  • Table 52: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the automotive market……………………………… 109
  • Table 53: Comparison of nanocellulose with steel and other materials…………………………………….. 110
  • Table 54: Nanocellulose in construction-Companies and products…………………………………………… 110
  • Table 55: Market size for nanocellulose in construction and civil engineering………………………….. 115
  • Table 56: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2027 (tons). 116
  • Table 57: Market impediments in the construction, building protection and architectural exterior coatings market………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 117
  • Table 58: Companies developing nanocellulose products in textiles, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
  • Table 59: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and clothing………………… 118
  • Table 60: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into textiles and clothing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 119
  • Table 61: Market assessment for nanocellulose in textiles and clothing…………………………………… 119
  • Table 62: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the textiles and clothing market………………… 120
  • Table 63: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets…………….. 121
  • Table 64: Nanocellulose product developers in medical and healthcare applications………………. 123
  • Table 65: Applications of nanocellulose in medical and healthcare………………………………………….. 126
  • Table 66: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2027 (tons).. 126
  • Table 67: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market………….. 127
  • Table 68: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets…………………… 128
  • Table 69: Companies developing nanocellulose products in coatings and paints, applications targeted and stage of commercialization…………………………………………………………………………….. 130
  • Table 70: Market assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and paints……………………………………. 132
  • Table 71: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in coatings and films……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
  • Table 72: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in coatings and films…………………… 134
  • Table 73: Demand for nanocellulose in the paint and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons)……….. 135
  • Table 74: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the coatings and films market…………………… 137
  • Table 75: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market……………………………………… 137
  • Table 76: Nanocellulose product developers in aerogels………………………………………………………….. 139
  • Table 77: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………………. 140
  • Table 78: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the aerogels market…………………………………. 141
  • Table 79: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market………………………………………………… 141
  • Table 80: Nanocellulose product developers in oil and gas exploration……………………………………. 143
  • Table 81: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in oil and gas……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 144
  • Table 82: Market assessment for nanocellulose in oil and gas…………………………………………………. 144
  • Table 83: Nanocellulose in the oil and gas market-applications, stage of commercialization and estimated economic impact………………………………………………………………………………………………… 145
  • Table 84: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons)…. 146
  • Table 85: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market……………. 147
  • Table 86: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market……………………………………….. 147
  • Table 87: Companies developing NFC products in filtration, applications targeted and stage of commercialization……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • Table 88: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in filtration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
  • Table 89: Market assessment for nanocellulose in filtration……………………………………………………… 153
  • Table 90: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in the filtration industry……………….. 154
  • Table 91: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………………… 155
  • Table 92: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the filtration market…………………………………… 155
  • Table 93: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market………………………. 156
  • Table 94: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers………………………………………….. 158
  • Table 95: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the rheology modifiers market………………….. 158
  • Table 96: Nanocellulose applications timeline in flexible electronics………………………………………… 159
  • Table 97: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………… 162
  • Table 98: Companies developing Nanocellulose products in flexible and stretchable electronics, applications targeted and stage of commercialization………………………………………………………… 163
  • Table 99: Global market for wearables, 2014-2021, units and US$………………………………………….. 164
  • Table 100: Application markets, competing materials, Nanocellulose advantages and current market size in electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
  • Table 101: Market assessment for nanocellulose in the flexible and printed electronics sector.. 166
  • Table 102: Market opportunity assessment for Nanocellulose in flexible electronics………………… 167
  • Table 103: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the printed and flexible electronics market. 169
  • Table 104: Companies developing nanocellulose 3D printing products,…………………………………… 170
  • Table 105: Application markets, competing materials, nanocellulose advantages and current market size in 3D printing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
  • Table 106: Market assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing……………………………………………….. 171
  • Table 107: Market opportunity assessment for nanocellulose in 3D printing…………………………….. 172
  • Table 108: Market impediments for nanocellulose in the 3D printing market……………………………. 173
  • Table 109: Nanocellulose producers and types of nanocellulose produced……………………………… 175
  • Table 110: Target market, by nanocellulose producer……………………………………………………………… 176

FIGURES

  • Figure 1: CNF wet powder………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
  • Figure 2: Running shoes incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………. 34
  • Figure 3: Ballpoint pen incorporating cellulose nanofibers………………………………………………………….. 35
  • Figure 4: Onkyo speakers, incorporating CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 36
  • Figure 5: Daio Paper toilet wipes………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
  • Figure 6: Cellulose Nanofiber (CNF) composite with polyethylene (PE)…………………………………….. 37
  • Figure 7: Nanocellulose market, by type, 2015–2027 (Tons)……………………………………………………… 38
  • Figure 8: Nanocellulose market by region, 2017………………………………………………………………………… 40
  • Figure 9: Nanocellulose market by region, 2027………………………………………………………………………… 41
  • Figure 10: Polycarbonate (left); Composite of Polycarboate and CNF……………………………………….. 43
  • Figure 11: Schematic diagram of partial molecular structure of cellulose chain with numbering for carbon atoms and n= number of cellobiose repeating unit……………………………………………………. 45
  • Figure 12: Scale of cellulose materials……………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
  • Figure 13: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocellulose producer…………………. 56
  • Figure 14: Volume of industry demand for nanocellulose by nanocellulose producer sales, 2016. 61
  • Figure 15: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper…………………………………………………………………….. 72
  • Figure 16: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
  • Figure 17: Foldable nanopaper antenna…………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
  • Figure 18: Demand for nanocellulose in the composites market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………………. 80
  • Figure 19: Demand for nanocellulose in the biopackaging market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………… 88
  • Figure 20: Demand for nanocellulose in the paper and board market, 2015-2027 (tons)…………… 94
  • Figure 21: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerospace and aviation market, 2015-2027 (tons). 100
  • Figure 22: NFC composite………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
  • Figure 23: Demand for nanocellulose in the automotive market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………….. 108
  • Figure 24: Demand for nanocellulose in the construction and building market, 2015-2027 (tons). 116
  • Figure 25: Demand for nanocellulose in the medical and healthcare market, 2015-2027 (tons). 126
  • Figure 26: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market……………………………….. 131
  • Figure 27: Demand for nanocellulose in the paints and coatings market, 2015-2027 (tons)…….. 135
  • Figure 28: Demand for nanocellulose in the aerogels market, 2015-2027 (tons)……………………… 140
  • Figure 29: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery. 142
  • Figure 30: Demand for nanocellulose in the oil and gas exploration market, 2015-2017 (tons).. 146
  • Figure 31: Nanocellulose virus filter paper………………………………………………………………………………… 151
  • Figure 32: Demand for nanocellulose in the filtration market, 2015-2027 (tons)………………………. 154
  • Figure 33: Electronic components using NFC as insulating materials………………………………………. 160
  • Figure 34:  Cellulose nanofiber films…………………………………………………………………………………………. 161
  • Figure 35: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF………………………………… 161
  • Figure 36: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 162
  • Figure 37: Global market revenues for smart wearable devices 2014-2021, in US$………………… 164
  • Figure 38: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, conservative estimate………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 39: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart wearable devices 2014-2021 in US$, optimistic estimate……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 165
  • Figure 40: Jawbone 3D printed with cellulose ink…………………………………………………………………….. 170
  • Figure 41: Asahi Kasei CNF fabric sheet………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
  • Figure 42: Properties of Asahi Kasei cellulose nanofiber nonwoven fabric………………………………. 181
  • Figure 43: Nonwoven fabric made from CNF……………………………………………………………………………. 182
  • Figure 44: CNC produced at Tech Futures’ pilot plant; cloudy suspension (1 wt.%), gel-like (10 wt.%), flake-like crystals, and very fine powder. Product advantages include:……………………………. 187
  • Figure 45: Rheocrysta spray…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
  • Figure 46: Hydrophobization facilities for raw pulp……………………………………………………………………. 201
  • Figure 47: Mixing facilities for CNF-reinforced plastic……………………………………………………………….. 202
  • Figure 48: Nippon Paper Industries’ adult diapers……………………………………………………………………. 203
  • Figure 49: CNF transparent film……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 205
  • Figure 50: CNF wet powder……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 205
  • Figure 51: Flexible electronic substrate made from CNF………………………………………………………….. 218
  • Figure 52: Bio-based barrier bags prepared from Tempo-CNF coated bio-HDPE film……………… 220